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First traces of human society in Albania !

Posted: Wed Jul 22, 2009 4:50 am
by Arta
Systematic excavation of Albanian territory, especially after the Second World War, have almost succeeded in filling the large gap in our knowledge about prehistoric and ancient times.Research has revealed that Albania is a country with an ancient civilization.

The first traces of man discovered so far on Albanian territory go back to the middle and late Palaeolithic period .This area ( stretching overall from 100,000 to 10,000 BC) is represented by findings along the shores of the Ionian sea and at the foot of Mt Dajti, near Tirane, in central Albania. These remains include tools made of microlithic flint, calcinous deposits and fossils of wild easts.

The discoveries made in the Neolithic sites are of particular interest. The Cakran settlement, situated in the southern coastal area, which belongs to middle Neolithic times (5000 BC). has brought to light remains of huts, either partially or totally buried in the ground, earthenware vases, decorated with painted motifs, anthropomorphic vases, stone tools. The Cakran civilization is very similar to contemporary civilizations north of the Adriatic.

The Neolithic settlement discovered at Kamnik in the mountainous area of Kolonje, shows different characteristics. On a hillside, among the ruins of rectangular-based huts formed of two peaces, traces have been found of two ovens, intended for the firing of painted ceramics.

Of all the prehistoric settlements in Albania, the most important is that of Maliq, a locality situated on the Korce plateau. The northern section of the plateau, also called the plain of Maliq was even those early days submerged by the waters of a shallow lake. The excavations which have taken place there for several years have brought to light the remains of a prehistoric settlement, consisting of several superimposed layers. It is possible to deduce that human life appeared in the late Neolithic area (about 2700 BC). In the copper Age these areas had been covered with water, so inhabitants built their homes on platforms supported by piles.

Non migrant groups of human beings created the first rural centers. The civilization of these sites was essentially agricultural and pastoral, despite the pursuits of hunting and fishing indicated by rudimentary boats. These are also signs of primitive weaving, while tools were improving technically. At Maliq and in other prehistoric centers, ceramic objects were among the major archaeological finds. The variety of earthenware vases, as well as the assortment of decorations, have related the origins of inhabitants of the Neolithic settlement in these regions and their relationship to those in the south-east of Balkans.

By their characteristics, the Neo-aeneolithic civilization of the Maliq and Kamnik sites form part of the larger Aegean-Anatolian group. The first bearers of this civilisation were groups of primitive farmers from the Neolithic era who, after leaving Asia Minor in search of new territory, reached the Southern Balkans. Following the valleys of the Bistrica and of the Devoll, they then settled in the south-east. At the same time a new migration of populations took place with the aim of appropriating not only their land, but also the veins of bronze. As far as one can tell, it seems that these were people who founded the Tren settlement, situated in the same basin as Maliq but a bit further south, and where traces of the same civilisation have been discovered.

Re: First traces of human society in Albania !

Posted: Wed Jul 22, 2009 5:37 am
by Arta
Chronology of Albania

Chronology Of Major Events

1225 B.C.
Earliest known Illyrian king, Hyllus, dies.

Fourth Century B.C.

King Bardhylus unites Illyria, Molossia (Epirus) and part of Macedonia. The Illyrian kingdom reaches its peak.

358 B.C.
Illyrians are defeated by Philip II of Macedonia.

312 B.C.
King Glauk of Illyria expels Greeks from Durres.

232 B.C.

King Agron dies, the Illyrian throne is occupied by Queen Teuta.

165 B.C.

Romans capture King Gent of Illyria and send him to Rome. Illyria is now under Roman control.

First Century A.D.
Christianity comes to Illyrian populated areas.

9 A.D.
Emperor Tiberius of Rome subjugates the Illyrians and divides present day Albania between Dalmatia, Epirus, and Macedonia.

395 A.D.

Division of Roman Empire leaves lands presently inhabited by Albanians under the administration of the Eastern Empire.

Fourth Century - Seventh Century
Goths, Huns, Avars, Serbs, Croats, and Bulgars successively invade Illyrian lands.

Eighth Century

Slav tribes settle into the territories of present-day Slovenia, Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia, and assimilate the Illyrian populations of these regions. The Illyrians in the south (preset Albania) avert assimilation.

732 A.D.

Illyrians are subordinated to the patriarchate of Constantinople by the Byzantine Emperor, Leo the Isaurian.

Christianity divides into Catholic and Orthodox churches. Christians in southern Albania are left under the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople and those in the north under the pope in Rome.

Albania and Albanians as the direct of Illyrians origin are mentioned for the first time in a historical record, by Byzantine emperor.

Twelfth Century
Serbs occupy parts of northern and eastern Albanian inhabited lands.

Venice wins control over most of Albania, but Byzantines regain control of the southern portion and establish the Despotate of Epirus.


Forces of the King of Naples occupy Durres and establish the Kingdom of Arberia, the first Albanian kingdom since the fall of Illyria.

Albanian ruler of Durres invites Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival.


Albanians join Serbian-led Balkan army that is defeated by Ottoman forces at the Battle of Kosova.

Gjergj Kastrioti (Scanderbeg) is born.

After losing a battle near Nis, Scanderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors defect from the Ottoman army and return to Kruja.

Albanian principalities unite at Lezha under Scanderbeg, who is proclaimed chief of Albanian resistance.

Albanians, under Scanderbeg, rout Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.

Scanderbeg dies.

Kruja falls to Ottoman Turks; Shkodra falls a year later. Subsequently, many Albanians flee to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere; many remaining are forced to convert to Islam.

Early Seventeenth Century

Some Albanians who convert to Islam find careers in Ottoman Empire's government and military.

Seventeenth Century and Eighteenth Century
About two-thirds of Albanians convert to Islam.


Albanian leader Ali Pasha of Tepelena assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting autonomy.

1000 Albanian leaders invited to meet with Ottoman general who kills about half of them.

Ottoman Porte divides Albanian-populated lands into vilayets of Janina, Manastir, Shkodra, and Kosova with Ottoman administrators.

First school known to use Albanian language in modern times is open in Shkodra.

Treaty of San Stefano, signed after Russo-Turkish War, assigned Albanian-populated lands to Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia; but Austria-Hungary and Britain block the treaty's implementation. Albanian leaders meet in Prizren, Kosova, to form the League of Prizren. The League initially advocated autonomy for Albania. At the Congress of Berlin, the Great Powers overturn the Treaty of San Stefano and divide Albanian lands among several states. The League of Prizren begins to organize resistance to the Treaty of Berlin's provisions that affect Albanians.


Ottoman forces crush Albanian resistance fighters at Prizren. The League's leaders and families are arrested and deported.


Ottoman authorities disband a reactivated League of Prizren, execute its leader and ban Albanian language books.

Albanian intellectuals meet in Manastir (Bitolja, Macedonia), at the Congress of Manastir to standardize the Albanian alphabet using the Latin script. Up to now, Latin, Cyrillic and Arabic script had been used.

May. Albanians rise against the Ottoman authorities and seize Shkup (Skopje, Macedonia).
October. First Balkan War begins, and Albanian leaders affirm Albania as an independent state.
November. Albanian delegates at Vlora declare the independence of Albania and establish a provisional government. December. Ambassadorial conference opens in London and discusses Albania's fate.

May. Treaty of London ends First Balkan War, Second Balkan War begins. November. Treaty of Bucharest ends Second Balkan War. Great Powers recognize an independent Albanian state. Demographics are ignored, however, and half of the territories inhabited by Albanians (such as Kosova and Chameria) are divided among Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.

Prince Wilhelm of Wied is installed as head of the Albanian state by the International Control Commission. His rule ended within six months, with the outbreak of World War I.

World War I ends, with Italian armies occupying most of Albania, and Serbian, Greek and French armies occupying the remainder. Italian and Yugoslav powers begin struggle for dominance over Albanians. In December, Albanian leaders meet at Durrës to discuss Albania's interests at the Paris Peace Conference.

Serbs attack Albanian cities; Albanians adopt guerilla warfare. Albania is denied official representation at the Paris Peace Conference; British, French and Greek negotiators decide to divide Albania among Greece, Italy and Yugoslavia. This decision is vetoed by American president Wilson.

January. Albanian leaders meet in Lushnjë and reject the partitioning of Albania by the Treaty of Paris, warn that Albanians will take up arms in defence of territory, and creates bicameral parliament.
February. Albanian government moves to Tirana, which becomes the capital.
September. Albania forces Italy to withdraw its troops and abandon claims on Albanian territory.
December. Albania is admitted to the League of Nations as sovereign and independent state.

November. Yugoslav troops invade Albania; League of Nations commission forces Yugoslav withdrawal and reaffirms Albania's 1913 borders.
December. Popular Party, led by Xhafer Ypi, forms government with Ahmet Zogu as minister of internal affairs.

August. Ecumenical patriarch in Constantinople recognizes the Autochephalous Albanian Orthodox Church.
September. Ahmet Zogu assumes position as Prime Minister.

Albania's Sunni Muslims break ties with Constantinople and pledge primary allegiance to native country.
July. A peasant-backed insurgency wins control of Tirana; Fan S. Noli becomes Prime Minister; Zogu flees to Yugoslavia.
December. Zogu, backed by Yugoslav army, returns to power and begins to smother parliamentary democracy; Noli flees to Italy.

March. Zogu's party wins elections for National Assembly, but Zogu steps down after a financial scandal and a assassination attempt.

Italy and Albania sign First Treaty of Tirana, which guarantees Zogu's political position and Albania's boundaries.

Zogu pressures the parliament to dissolve itself, a new constituent assembly declares Albania a kingdom and Zogu becomes Zog I, "King of the Albanians."

Zog refuses to renew the First Treaty of Tirana. Italians continue with political and economic pressure.

After Albania signs trade agreements with Greece and Yugoslavia, Italy suspends economic support, then attempts to threaten Albania.

Mussolini presents a gift of 3,000,000 gold frances to Albania; other economic aid follows.

March. Mussolini delivers ultimatum to Albania.
April. Mussolini's troops invade and occupy Albania; Albanian parliament votes to unite Albania with Italy; Zog flees to Greece.

Italian army attacks Greece through Albania.

April. Germany, with support of Italy and other allies defeat Greece and Yugoslavia.
October. Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav communist leader, directs organizing of Albanian communists.
November. Albanian Communist Party founded; Enver Hoxha becomes first secretary.

September. Communist Party organizes National Liberation Movement, a popular front resistance organization.
October. Non-communist nationalist groups form to resist the Italian occupation.


August. Italy's surrender to Allied forces weakens Italian hold on Albania; Albanian resistance fighters overwhelm five Italian divisions.
September. German forces invade and occupy Albania.