"Moreover, you scorned our people, and compared the Albanese to sheep, and according to your custom think of us with insults. Nor have you shown yourself to have any knowledge of my race. Our elders were Epirotes, where this Pirro came from, whose force could scarcely support the Romans. This Pirro, who Taranto and many other places of Italy held back with armies. I do not have to speak for the Epiroti. They are very much stronger men than your Tarantini, a species of wet men who are born only to fish. If you want to say that Albania is part of Macedonia I would concede that a lot more of our ancestors were nobles who went as far as India under Alexander the Great and defeated all those peoples with incredible difficulty. From those men come these who you called sheep. But the nature of things is not changed. Why do your men run away in the faces of sheep?"
Letter from Skanderbeg to the Prince of Taranto ▬ Skanderbeg, October 31 1460

Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

Sillni harta historike fiziko-politike-etnografike, që pasqyrojnë realitetin etnik dhe politik të një rajoni të caktuar, në një periudhë të caktuar.

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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#226

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sun Feb 05, 2012 3:10 pm

I.—GEOGRAPHICAL EXTENT AND STATISTICS.
This language is vernacular in Albania, a country which, in point of situation and extent, coincides with the ancient Epirus and Illyricum. It lies partly opposite to the Ionian Islands, and extends for more than 250 miles along the Mediterranean and Adriatic coasts. The Arnauts or Skipetars (as the Albanians are usually called) difler in language and in physical conformation from all the other tribes of Europe, and are supposed to be the descendants pf the ancient Illyrians.
The total population of Albania amounts, according to a recent writer, to about 1,600,000, amongst whom are 200,000 Greeks. But the Arnaut race is also extensively dispersed throughout the modern kingdom of Greece (within which the Albanians number 173,000 individuals), and in some of the neighbouring provinces of Turkey, and is found scattered over the countries of south-eastern Europe in general. Albanians constituted, at one time, the entire population of Hydra, Spezzia, Paros, and other Greek islands, and they are to be met with in Servia, and on the coasts of Calabria, in Southern Italy.

The Bible of every Land: a History of the Sacred Scriptures in every ...
http://books.google.com/books?id=vic-AA ... ts&f=false
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#227

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sun Feb 05, 2012 3:22 pm

Interesante!
THE SERVIANS. The Christian populations of the Turkish Empire, after remaining for four centuries unnoticed and forgotten, have at length, in the course of the present war, excited the attention of the Western world. Still, the public has but a dim notion of their existence, their social condition, development, and aspirations. We heard them, not long ago, in parliament called Greeks, because, no doubt, most of them belong to the Eastern Church, which we erroneously call the Greek Church; but only an insignificant fraction of the Christian inhabitants of European Turkey claims the illustrious name of Hellenes; indeed, the great majority would feel insulted by such a denomination; neither their history nor their traditions having any connection with the Macedonian Alexander, or the Ionians and Dorians of Athens and Sparta. They Constitute several groups of nations, feeling no communion of race, but each striving for supremacy. Those groups are—1. The Southern Slavonians, including the Servians, Bosniaks, and Montenegrins, allied to the Croatians and Dalmatians, and forming what the Germans call the Illyrian triangle; 2. The Roumains or Moldowallachians, on the left bank of the Danube and in the mountains of Macedonia; S. The Bulgarians, on the plain between the Danube and the Balkan; A. The Albanians and Mirdites, in the fastnesses of the Acrocevaunians, the Greeks proper, and the Armemans, chiefly inhabitants of the towns, scattered all over the empire.

Chambers's Edinburgh journal, conducted by W. Chambers. [Continued as ...
By Chambers's journal

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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#228

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sun Feb 05, 2012 4:02 pm

After the Roman Empire had existed for more than two centui'ies,

the Greeks began to suffer from Teutonic invasions. The Goths first

Teutonic attacked them, but were valiantly resisted, and did not suc-

invasions. ceed in settling permanently. It may be that some of this

revived energy was due to the introduction of Christianity, which was




GREEK WOMEN OF CLASSICAL TYPES.



followed by the establishment of the Eastern Imperial — the Greek — city
The of Byzantium (Constantinople). From tliis time, for centuries.
Empire, the history of Greece was closely connected with that of the
Greek, Byzantine, or Eastern empire. The establishment of the Greek
Church as distinct from the Roman, and the religious dissensions to which
The Greek it gave rise, cannot be entered upon ; but these events had a
Church, great effect upon the eastern nations, knitting together the
adherents of the Church, while they led to numerous dissentient pro-
vinces being detached from the empire, and finally facilitated its con-
quest by the Turks.

Another potent element affecting the Greeks was the Slavonic inva-
sion, which was so considerable that in the seventh and eighth centuries
Slavonic fl^® Slavs occupied a large part of Macedonia and Greece ; and
invasicns. ^j^g name Slavonia was given to the country from the Danube
to the Peloponnesus, the coast principally remaining to the Greeks. But

the Empii-e gained control over tlie invaders, and many of the Greeks
returned to their ancient seats, and a great process of minghng began,
wliich has distinctly modified the Greek race. The old name of Hellenes
even died out, never having been revived till the present century ; the
Greeks — strange historical fact— actually were proud to call themselves
Romans. The mediaeval empire which the Palseologus family established
on the ruins of the former one at Con^tantindple always held a great
part of Greece, but was often disconnected from it by other powers
occupying intervening territory. In this period (1261-1453) Greece was
fairly prosperous, sharing in the coinmercial advancement of Venice,
which often possessed more or less of the peninsula and islands.

" From the year 1453 to the end of the eighteenth century," says
Professor Donaldson, " almost all the occasions on which the Greek
people appear on the page of the historian are occasions oHm ^ ^^
wliich we read of them that they were butchered or sold into Venetian
slavery." Such is the dismal summary of the result of the tak- "^
ing of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, and the conquest of the
Peloponnesus in 1460. But Venice for long maintained the part of cham-
pion of Christendom against the Turk, and in the sixteenth and seven-
teenth centuries always had hold of some part of Greece, often a large
part. In 1699, the peace of Carlowitz gave all the Peloponnesus to
Venice, to be lost again less than a score of years after.* Various other
minor Christian powers held portions of Greek territory at different
times, but the kingdom of Epiriis waS the most persistent of these.
Others, as the duchy of Athens and the principality of Achaia, or Morea,
had a fluctuating history, but finally fell into the devouring jaws of the
Turks.

In the eighteenth century Russia, pressing upon Turkey on the

north, began to take up the part of the champion of Greek Christendom,

and to rouse the Greeks to insurrection. But her efforts have „

. , . . Russian

always had the self-interested aim of securing their Subjection interest in

and devotion to Russia, and thus have continually failed to

give Greece all she hoped for. At various times the Sultan promised to

protect the Cliristian religion, but did little or nothing to fulfil his

promises ; and Russia's selfish designs being seen through by the other

European powers, the Turk was maintained as an essential element in

the balance of European power.

It was a remarkable fact, that this Greek nationality, though often

almost annihilated, — men and women being continually massacred or

* It was during this war that the Turks, being attacked in Athens, retired to the
Acropolis, placing part of their powder in the Parthenon. The Venetians exemplified
the unscrupulousness of war by sending their bombs into this priceless building, which
had hitherto remained almost vminjured by time. One bomb fell on the powder, and
caused an explosion which utterly destroyed many masterpieces of art, and greatly
defaced the building.



THE INHABITANTS OF EUROPE.



sold into slavery, their children taken from them and trained as Janis-
saries (the Sultan's body-guard), even their spirits being sub-
assimiiated dued, SO that many of them became the Sultan's viziers
^ "^ ^' and generals, and adopted Mahometanism,* — could yet so far
retain and cherish their natio^ial feelings as to summon up courage to
resist the Turks in the nineteenth century. When, in 1821, the Greek
war of independence broke out, general European sympathy supported
them. Yet they would have been once more crushed had not the combined
Kinffdom of ^®®^^ ^^ England, France, and Russia annihilated the Turkish
Greece fleet at Navarino, in 1827. In 1832 the present kingdom was
■ established, the Turks still keeping Epirus, Thessaly, and
Crete. Thessaly and a part of Epirus were added to Greece as late as 1881.
The matchless literature of ancient Greece, the poems of Hesiod,
Homer, Pindar, Simonides, the plays of ./Eschylus, Sophocles, Euripides,
Greek classic Aristophanes, the histories of Herodotus, Thucydides and
literature. Xenophon, the orations of Demosthenes and ^schines, the
philosophy of Plato and Aristotle — when one mentions these, one calls
up the names of forces as living to-day as ever, and which influence
profoundly the whole of Christian civilisation. After a period of criti-
cism, grammar, and philosophy, which had its centre at Alexandria and
Modem Greek ^ot On Greek soil, there came the Byzantine Greek era with
literature, jj-g jj^^^gg ^f "v^ritings. Only valuable because it preserves frag-
ments of more ancient Greek books. The modern Greeks have done
wisely in adapting their language to popular use, introducing European
ideas of syntax, and thus preparing the way for a new literature, sig-
nalised by such works as that of Tricoupis on the Revolution, and by
the poems of Sontsos (2) and Rangabe.

We must connect with the Greeks rather than the Slavs the
Albanian or Skipetar people, descended largely from the old lllyrians,
and much intermingled with the Greeks
.
They first took the Albanian
name in the twelfth century, Epirus was under a separate ruler in the
thirteenth century, and the first despot Michael established a considerable
empire, holding Thessaly and part of southern Greece, Thessalonica, and
Adrianople ; but it was soon contracted again to Epirus, and in the next
The century passed under Servian domination. When the Servians
Albanians, f^jj^ ^-^^ Albanians again became prominent and held several
principalities, including the kingdoms of Albania and Thessaly
.
Then

* A curious incident is told iu connection -with tliis change of faith. The iu-
liahitauts of thirty-six viUages in the valley of the Aous, in Albania, remained Christians
till 1760. At last they could no lojiger endure their distresses. They came to the con-
clusion that either Christianity was not true, or it ought to put them in a better
position. They resolved to try their faith once more, and approach the Divine Being
with the most solemn fasts, assuring themselves that if He did not listen to them, He
did not wish them to remain Christians. No improvement followed ; and, on Easter
Day, they in one body went over to Mahometanism.




GKEEK HISTORIANS, PHILOSOPHERS, ANO URAMATISIS.
201



202



THE INHABITANTS OF EUROPE.



later, Epii'us passed to Venice in the second half of the fourteenth
century, and Thessaly to the Turk. Finally, in the fifteenth century,
the Turk won all Albania and has kept it ever since. About seventy
per cent, of the Albanians are Mahometans, the rest belonging to the
Greek Church.

Whatever the intermixture of blood which has modified his nature,

the modem Greek is fully conscious and proud of his Greek ancestors.

_ . -In many cases the old classic type of features is quite unrecog-

Greeks to nisable, but in some corners they still linger ; and since the

war of independence the Greek population has been largely

replenished from Greek colonies abroad, especially from Constantinople
.


Greeks are still, however, spread far and wide in the Levant and Tm'key ;

and for the most typical Greeks the
islands of the Archipelago must be
searched. Not a few have become
notable merchants in England.

The mention of merchants sug-
gests the character in which Greeks
Mercantue &^6 best known. They are
ingenuity, clever bargainers, a clever-
ness which often becomes cunning,
and even cheating. The Levant is
flooded with unscrupulous Greek ad-
venturers. Of com'se this is the na-
tural reaction against the ages of
oppression and slavery to which the
Romans and the Turks subjected them.
To do him justice, the Greek per-
ceives the value of education. He
learns the ancient Greek grammar
and reads the Greek classics, and
acquires all the education the Uni-
versity of Athens can give him. Con-
sequently the professions are overcrowded in Greece, and we find men
of education making incomes which an average clerk in
England would despise. Journalism is a refuge which many
seek; and the number of journals is very great in proportion to the size
of the country. The educated men are eager for government employ-
ment, or to enter the government itself, and spend much time and effort
in compassing their objects. Yet what is tliis but a similar case to that
of England ? only here there are so many other outlets for enterprise.
Factions and The modem Greek is truthfully accused of being factious, and
discussions, somewhat fractious if his lofty positions be not granted. Dis-
cussion and curiosity are two of his prominent characteristics, and in



1




ALBANIANS.



Education.



pursuit of them he loses some more substantial advantages.



THE GREEKS. 203



Greeks are emphatically courteous, and good • company. They are
not prone to excess either in eating or drinking. Their courteousness is
often exhibited in a form bordering on the ridiculous, as courteous-
when servants sit down to dinner with their master, and one ^®^^-
hears the term " brother " bandied about between those of extremely
diiferent station.

As regards home comfort, the Greeks certainly sliine. They are, as
a rule, much more well-to-do than other peoples lately under Turkish
domination. Their land is fertile, their wine is drinkable. Home
their grapes and other fruits are abundant, and their homes comfort,
show a sense of refinement and comfort unknown to most of the Slav
populations.

The Greeks rank high as regards personal appearance among the
European peoples. Rather dark-complexioned, finely formed oval faces,
with sparkling eyes, well-formed nose, rather small hands and feet, make
up a sufficiently striking personality. The men in former times physical
universally wore, and still do in the majority of cases, the appearance,
skirted costume which somewhat resembles the Scotch kilt. The women
are very good-looking, wearing a long kerchief over their head, grace-
fully folded, and often most elaborately decorated and embroidered
dresses with large sleeves.

The Albanians are a wilder and more insubordinate people than the
Greeks
.
Being often Mahometans, their kinship and attachment to the
Greeks are often obscured by religious differences
.
In the rugged Albanian
mountain wilds the people preserve very much of their old tribes,
tribal system, one of their habits being that of seeking wives outside
their own tribe. "His walk is a haughty stalk," says one who knows
the Albanian well. " With his gold-embroidered vest, bright sash, his
leather pouch in front, in which are stuck two gold-hilted jewelled
pistols and yataghan, his many-folded snowy kilt, which swings a wilder
from side to side as he struts along, he is indeed an imposing- *yP®-
looldng creature." This is a specimen of the Mahometan Albanian ;
while his neighbour who remains in the Greek Church often wears the
fez, Turkish jacket, and baggy trousers tied in at the knee. He cannot
carry arms openly, being a Christian ; and he wears the fawning in-
sincere look of the oppressed. He is probably a merchant or tradesman
with money, of which he dares not show the evidences, lest the Turk
should pounce down upon him for taxes. But it must be admitted that
the Albanians of the North, the Gheggas, who are Roman Catholics,
maintain their old warlike demeanour and attitude of defiance of the
Turk ; and an institution resembling the vendetta, together with tribal
vengeance, keeps alive the ferocity of their nature. They are ^.^^
implacable and cruel as foes, warm and hospitable as friends, Albanian
and loyal to their own side. There is rough material for
a good, bold, sturdy character in them ; and it may be hoped that it will



I



204



THE INHABITANTS OF EUROPE.



1



one day be ranged under the banner of Greece. At present they have
a good deal of the bandit tendency ; and this is not to be surprised at
under the rule of the Turks. Their warHke capacity, however, has been
considerably utilised by the Turks, who have allowed them to be com-
manded by their own chiefs, and indulged their freebooting tendencies
in other lands
.
One of the least agreeable features of the women is, that
they carry arms, and are ready to take a violent part in their family or
tribal feuds.


THE CYCLADEANS.

The islands of the Greek Archipelago are peculiarly interesting, be-
cause they have preserved types of feature, manners, customs, and dress
which have elsewhere passed away. They have for the most part been free
from invasions, and have largely escaped oppression. Mr. Bent's inter-
esting volume on "The Cyclades" is our best and most recent authority.




MODE UN GREEKS.



Among the many island customs of to-day which had their precise
parallel in ancient Greek times, we may note the following. In Seriphos
ReUcs of " every proprietor has his grave in his own. field, built like a
old customs, little shrine ; and if he sells his field, special provision is made
against the disturbance of ancestral bones. In Keos, a church is dedi-
cated to St. Anarguris as the patron saint of flocks and herds, representing
the ancient god Pan. Whenever an ox is ailing, they take it to tliis
church and pray for its recovery. If the cock crows when they start, or
they hear the voice of a man, or the grunt of a pig, there is every hope
that the animal will be cured ; but on the contrary, if they hear a cat, a
dog, or a woman, it is looked upon as an evil omen. When at the church
of St. Anarguris, they solemnly register a vow, that if the ox recovers
they will present it to the saint when its days of work are over ; accord-
ingly every year, on July 1, the day on which they celebrate the feast
of this saint, numbers of aged oxen may be seen on the road to this



THE GREEKS.



205



church, where they are slaughtered on the threshold, and the flesh
distributed among the poor.

Vampires and nereids, or spirits of the water, are still beheved in ;
evil sphits are exorcised ; diseases are cured by magic incantations and
charms; hobgoblins haunt the rocks; rain falls because ^116^^^^^^^.^.^^^^
vault of heaven is full of holes hke a sieve, and God pours
water on to it out of skins, and sometimes He squeezes hard and some-
times softly; mu-acle-working pictures are numerous. Even the manifold
powers of the sun are still believed in. "I have heard an island mother
say," relates Mr. Bent, " ' Perhaps the sun will carry a message for me to
my child,' when she was speaking of her daughter in service somewhere




Arqoa,



Corinth.
GREEK WOMEN.



Sparta.



on the mainland. These are but specimens o± a great number of super-
stitions still active in the Cyclades.

Among the curious costumes of the Cyclades, none is more remark-
able than that of the women of Siphnos, now only worn in full on
ceremonial occasions. The head-dress consists of a sort of cap costumes of
padded with cotton, around which a shawl is twisted, covered w^oi^en.
with varied gold embroideries. The skirt of the dress is of cloth of gold,
the bodice splendidly embroidered in gold and colours, and a green velvet
overgown is worn, with hanging sleeves, and decked with gold trimmings.
In Kimolos the festal dress is of silver brocade, covered with gold and
coloured flowers. In Melos the women's head-dress is a thin white muslin



2o6 THE INHABITANTS OF EUROPE.

veil tied round the chin and carried over the liead in crossing folds, the
ends hanging down behind. Two curls emerge on each side. The
festal-dress is very elaborate, the head-dress having a padded foundation,
edged with gold lace, over which the muslin handkerchief is twisted.
The jacket is of purple silk edged with fur, and the skirt of satin span-
gled with white flowers. A stomacher of silver brocade, a silk gauze
apron edged with old Greek lace, and dainty little shoes, complete the
costume. In the other islands many equally interesting costumes still
remain. In a good many islands the women always cover their faces.

In Melos every garment and every household article is still made at
home. Cotton spinning and weaving are the regular occupations, a loom
occupying a corner in every cottage. In Keos the oak harvest
is the great feature. There are a million and a half of oak
trees on the island ; and the acorns are as big as eggs, and serve to feed
pigs ; while the cups are exported, being rich in tannic acid. In a
number of islands peculiar wines are made, many of them being un-
attractive to strangers. Parian marble is still quarried ; but the island ot
Paros is a desolate spot.

Houses in the Greek islands are extremely simple. In Anaphi, for
instance, they consist mostly of one long narrow room, with a street-door,
a window on each side of it, and one above it. They are white-
washed within and without, and each house has its round
vaulted stove, about five yards from the house. In some islands many of
the houses are perfect hovels, where the families live with their pigs,
their fowls, and their store of wood around them ; while the baby's only
cradle is the pig-trough. In other cases the fowls and even lambs occupy
the space under the beds ! In some mountain villages, as in Keos, the
flat roofs of the houses adjoin ; and it is customary to enter by the roof,
the alleys being given up to the pigs. It is possible to walk for a long
distance without leaving the roofs, going from one to the other b}^ little
staircases or bridges. Frequently the houses are utterly comfortless,
owing to their abounding damp, rain pouring in through windows
and roof.

The Greek islanders are often passionately tond of dancing, and there
are many local dances. At Anaphi, the Systa, danced only by men, is
Dancing and very curious. The men stand in a semicircle, with their hands
music. Qj^ each other's shoulders, and then move slowly backwards
and forwards, gradually quickening till the motion becomes extremely
rapid. Many features of these dances render them admirably suited for
the expression of feeling. In many houses the ancient lyre is still to be
seen. The panpipe is frequently heard sounding pleasantly on the hill-
side. It merely consists of two reeds hollowed out, and placed side by
side in a larger reed. Straws run up the smaller reeds, and there are, of
course, the necessary blow-holes.

Education is very deficient, or almost non-existent, in many of the



THE GREEKS. 207



islands, and superstitions are handed down nncliecked. Even the Greek

Cliiircli becomes the propagator of these superstitions, having;

, , -, !> xi X •- ■ ^ 1 • T -VT • Education,

adapted so many 01 them to its saint worship, in JMaxos, is

Mount Zia (formerly Dios), with a church at whose altar a shepherd is

accustomed to swear to his innocence if charged with stealing a sheep or

a goat. The peasants still say, when there is an earthquake, ' God is

shaking His hair.' But Syra has its university, of high repute,

which does good work ; and Mr. Bent says, " If all the Greeks

were like those of Syra, there could be no question as to who should rule

at Constantinople." Many of the people are refugees from Chios, or their

descendants. -

THE CRETANS,

The long, narrow, mountainous island of Crete has a romantic his-
tory, and contains a large Greek population, dominated by a few Turks.
The heroic struggles the Cretans have made for independence, and the
amount of self-government they have gained, indicate that at a future
time they will certainly be united to the Greek kingdom. The home
of the famous Minos, the great lawgiver, and first possessor of
naval power, Crete failed to gain a leading position in early
Greek history, owing to the want of a common bond between its cities and
communities ; and, in fact, the island suffered long from continual civil
wars. The Romans subdued Crete in b.c. 67, and made it a province.
The Byzantine empire inherited and kept it till 823, when the Saracens
took it. It was recovered in 960 by Nicephorus Phocas ; but after the
partition of the Greek empire, early in the 13th century, it Venetian
passed into the hands of Venice for more than four hundred ^i^i^-
years. The Venetians combined the promotion of material prosperity
with oppressive government, and many times the people rebelled.

In 1645 the Turks first attacked Crete seriously ; and in 1648 began
the celebrated siege of the chief city, Candia, which lasted till September
1669, when Crete passed under Turkish rule. Many of the Turkish
inhabitants became Mahometans ; and the island was one of domination.
the worst governed portions of the Turkish empire. From 1821 to 1830,
the Cretans valiantly fought for independence ; and in 1830 the island was
transferred to the sway of Mehemet Ah, viceroy of Egypt. But this only
lasted ten years ; and while recent Turkish rule has allowed some local
self-government, revolts have again and again occurred, which have tasked
the power of Turkey to repress. The mountaineers, known as Sfakiots,
have all along preserved much independence, and retain to a large extent
the customs and manners of their forefathers.

^The world's inhabitants; or, Mankind, animals, and plants; being a popular account of the races and nations of mankind, past and present, and the animals and plants inhabiting the great continents and principal islands"
Ne sot po hedhim faren me emrin Bashkim,
Qe neser te korrim frutin me emrin Bashkim!

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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#229

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sun Feb 05, 2012 4:09 pm

It is very interesting to compare together the different inhabitants of European Turkey, such as the Servians, the Bulgarians, the Wallachians, the Greeks, and the Albanians. The Servians and Bulgarians may be said to be nearly the same people, and appear to be more numerous than the Greeks; although the latter extend beyond the kingdom of Greece into Thessaly, and even into Southern Macedonia, and are scattered in considerable numbers over all the maritime districts of European and Asiatic Turkey. However, the greatest part of Macedonia may be said to be a Bulgarian-Servian country; and even the Bulgarians who live there seem to have more energy than their brethren on the Danube. The Servians and Bulgarians dislike the Greeks, who in turn despise them: indeed the Greeks live on far better terms with the Wallachians or even the Albanians. On the other hand, the Wallachians and Servians dislike one another, and the former consider the Bulgarians and Servians as their vassals; because they say it was so during the Roman empire, and also because Servia contains no large towns like Wallachia, nor any nobility; nor is there the same wealth and luxury among the Boyards, many of whom in Wallachia are very well informed, and have given their sons a fashionable foreign education. It must, however, be remarked, that the Wallachian peasant is, like the Hungarian one, a mere serf; whilst the Servian peasant is a freeman with landed property. I may also add that, although the Servians have removed by various emigrations into Hungary, the Bannat, and Syrmia, and even beyond Fiinfkirclien, they still appear to entertain a national antipathy towards the natives of these countries, although living in the same kingdom, and under the same laws.
The Turks subdued the Servians in 1389, and the Greeks in 1473: the former began their struggle for freedom in 1804, and the latter in 1801. The Greeks, from the commencement of their war, received foreign assistance of all kinds, and they now have a foreign king, and are pretty deeply in debt; whilst the Servians, who conducted their war almost entirely without assistance, and at their own expense, have a government of their own choosing, with very few of those foreigners, so numerous in Greece, who, in many instances, probably attend less to the interests of the country than to their own. It may be added, that after a state of war, or at least of uncertainty, for nearly twenty-five years, the Servian government has a good deal of money in its treasury, and the country is in a quiet state, and entirely free from robbers. These differences in the present condition of the two countries arise from various causes, as, for instance, the different character of the inhabitants; for the Servians are much less inclined to be turbulent, are less vain, and come less into contact with other nations. Besides, although the Servians have had severe wars to sustain at different parts, Greece, from being so much surrounded by the sea, would have been exposed to greater danger if her seamen had not been superior to the Turks. In Servia, also, there was fortunately only one single people, whilst the Greeks were mixed up with the Albanians and other tribes.
The Servian war of independence had its origin in the Servians being obliged to defend themselves against some rebels to the government of Constantinople: when once in arms, they remained so until they had gained their point, the Turkish government being forced by their bravery, as well as by foreign influence, to grant their demands.

Edinburgh new philosophical journal, Volume 24
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#230

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sun Feb 05, 2012 4:56 pm

Sikunder dihet, Greqia eshte shteti i vetem ballkanik qe perfitoi ndihma te nduarnduarshme nga Evropa, si ne aspektin politik, ashtu edhe ne ate ushtarak, financiar dhe moral. Vendet e tjera ballkanike nuk e gezuan fare nje ndihme te tille (e kam fjalen per shqiptaret, boshnjaket, vllahet, etj). Ne paragrafet vijuese, jane bere disa krahasime midis Greqise dhe Serbise. Autori i krahasimit eshte serb, keshtu qe njeanshmeria eshte e qarte (per shkak se edhe Serbia ka perfituar ndihma ruse). Megjithate, disa nga pohimet jane mese te qendrueshme, prandaj i kam nenvizuar me ngjyre. Lexim te kendshem dhe kritik!
Before I detail the progress of financial embarrassments in Greece, it is as well to recall to the reader's mind the fact that Eastern countries possess great facilities of administration, especially as regards finances. Whoever looks at what has been achieved by Servia, may conceive what Greece might have effected by her own unassisted resources had she not become the prey of European diplomacy and of western ideas.
"The Servians allied themselves with the Ottomans in the year 1389. The Greeks called them to take possession of, and defend their country against the Albanians, in 1453. Subjugated almost at the same time, both of them began their struggle of independence in the same order—the Servians, in 1804, the Greeks, in 1821.
"The germ of the Greek revolution lay without Greece, and was systematically and for a long time carefully and extensively nourished in the great marts of Europe, and the final outbreak took place not even on the soil of Greece, but at a distance of seven hundred miles and to the north of the Balcan and the Danube. It was otherwise in Servia: the revolution broke out in the interior of the country, and without any plan. It was at first nothing but a resolve of each single Servian to maintain his customs, and in them his rights. The idea of independence was an afterthought, developed by circumstances of a foreign character.
"Scarcely had the revolt broken out in Greece, when all Europe, America, and even India, with every imaginable means, with money, arms, ships, men of all descriptions, hastened to assist her, and by opinion, the press and diplomacy supported her rebellion. Thus matters continued until the Porte at last was obliged to acknowledge the independence of the newly created kingdom. The war was not even carried on by the Greeks alone, but in great part by foreigners, Albanians, Wallachians, and Bulgarians.
"The Servians, in an inland country, much less favoured by position, and open on all sides, fought alone, with their own means—one may almost say unknown to all Europe. They defeated, with infinitely smaller forces, hostile armies of thirty to forty thousand men,* and there was no one to mention their deeds.
"The Greeks have received millions as presents, and have incurred millions of debt, notwithstanding which, up to this hour, every newspaper is full of the unhappy state of their finances.
"The Servians have struggled for thirty years (eleven years of open war and nineteen of negociations) without instalments or protocols, without countenance, without money, yet they felt neither difficulty nor embarrassment; and at the close of the war, they had a large surplus in their national treasury, said to exceed £500,000.
* On more than one occasion the Turks actually refused to fight, when they learnt that the Municipal Primates were in the field against them. In Greece, on the contrary, all those ties, anting out of Eastern institutions, were at cnce severed.
"The Greek government must now, we may say, wage war against its former soldiers, whilst in Servia, the warriors have returned to their ploughs.
"The Greeks wander from their own liberated kingdom back to Turkey, whilst the Servians not only remain in security and comfort in their homes, but receive emigrants from all sides." *
The Greek people is, nevertheless, immeasurably superior in knowledge, intelligence, activity, and wealth, to the Servians. But the Servians, up to the consummation of their independence, preserved the institutions which have been withered in Greece, and — they have had no benevolent protectors, f
Greece, while a province of the Turkish empire, gave a surplus of revenue over its expenditure.
The budgets of Greece, as a free state, after
* This comparison is drawn from a MS. by Dr. Vuk, the author of the Servian Anthology.
t Russia has assumed to be the protector of Servia; but, had she stood alone in Greece as she did in Servia, Greece might now be in the happy position which Servia has achieved, and which is now endangered by Russia's progress in Greece and Turkey; or, to speak more accurately, in the British cabinet, and in society in London.

The diplomatic history of the monarchy of Greece: from the year 1830 ...
By Henry Headley Parish
Soon after midsummer, not only in the Morea, but throughout a great part of northern Greece, as far as Salonica, the Turks had retired into the fortified towns, and strong places, all the mountains and open country being either in the hands of the Greeks, or subject to their incursions. Agents had been sent to Europe for the purchase of arms and ammunition. Many volunteers, Franks* as well as Greeks, had arrived in the Morea, and many generous contributions of money and stores had been received both from foreigners and from opulent Greek merchants settled in different European sea-ports.

* By Franks, is meant not only Frenchmen, but I believe any white foreigner from Europe or America, with the exception of Russians.

^History of the Greek revolution: compiled from official documents of the ...
By John Lee Comstock
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#231

Post by Socio » Sun Feb 05, 2012 7:25 pm

Observime shume te qelluara nga ju Alb !

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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#232

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sun Feb 05, 2012 8:47 pm

Socio wrote:Observime shume te qelluara nga ju Alb !

Faleminderit
Ka edhe te tjera, po kaq te vlefshme, Socio :)
The power and influence of the Albanians steadily increased in the Othoman empire. In the East, the sword alone commands popular respect and political influence. During the last century, as the turbulence of the janissaries increased and their military value declined, the Albanians rose in consideration and power. In every province of European Turkey the Othoman race seemed to decline, in courage as well as in wealth and number. The Albanians everywhere seized the military power when it escaped from the hands of the Turks. Every pasha enrolled a guard of Albanian mercenaries, in order to intimidate the ayans and Turkish landlords in his pashalik. The tendency of the Othoman government towards centralisation had already commenced, though it still remained almost imperceptible amidst the existing anarchy. The Albanian mercenaries were used as instruments to advance this centralisation; and the power they attained being more apparent than the end for which they were employed, even the Turks, who have always affected military tastes and habits, became imitators of the Albanians. At the commencement of this century, the Greeks from day to day feared the Turks less and the Albanians more. :mrgreen:
The history of the Greek Revolution would often be obscure unless the importance of the Albanian element, which pervaded military society in the Othoman empire, is fully appreciated. A trifling but striking mark of the high position which the Albanians had gained was exhibited by the general adoption of their dress. Though a strong antipathy to the Mussulman Albanians had been always felt by the Othoman Turks, towards the end of the last century they began to pay an involuntary homage to the warlike reputation of the Albanian mercenaries. It became then not uncommon, in Greece and Macedonia, to see the children of the proudest Osmanlees dressed in the fustinello, or white kilt of the Tosks. Subsequently, when Veli Pasha, the second son of Ali of Joannina, governed the Morea,1 even young Greeks of rank ventured to assume this dress, particularly when travelling, as it afforded them an opportunity of wearing arms. The Greek armatoli and the Christians employed as police-guards, even in the Morea, also wore this dress; but it was the fame of the Albanians—for the military reputation of the armatoli was then on the decline and that of the Suliots on the ascendantwhich induced the modern Greeks to adopt the Albanian kilt as their national costume. It is in consequence of this admiration of Albanianism that the court of King Otho assumes its melo-dramatic aspect, and glitters in tawdry tinsel mimicry of the rich and splendid garb which arrested the attention of Childe Harold in the galleries of the palace of Tepelin; but the calico fustinello hangs round the legs of the Greeks like a paper petticoat, while the white kilt of the Tosk, formed of a strong product of native looms, fell in the graceful folds of antique drapery.
The relations of Mussulman and Christian Albanians were much more friendly than the relations of Albanians and Turks. The Albanian, unlike the Greek, felt the bonds of nationality stronger than those of religion. The hostile feelings with which he regarded the Othomans originated in the tyranny of Turkish pashas and the avarice of Turkish voevodes, cadis, and moolahs.

History of the Greek revolution, Volume 1, George Finlay
Among the numerous islands of the Egean, arise several barren rocks, some of which are however gifted by nature with small and commodious havens. Of this number, are Hydra, Spezzia, and Ipsara, the two first close to the Eastern shore of the Peloponnesus, and the latter not far from Scio, on the Asiatic coast. Tyranny and Want had driven some families, whose origin, like that of nearly all the peasants, who inhabit proper Greece, was Albanian, to take refuge on these desolate crags, where they built villages, and sought a precarious existence by fishing.

The Greek revolution: its origin and progress: together with some remarks on ...
By Edward Blaquière
Secili autor modern eshte i detyruar te pranoje se pa ndihmen e detareve te Hidres, Specait dhe Psares, revolucioni 'grek' do te deshtonte. Ishte pikerisht sakrifica dhe aftesia e ketyre detareve te regjur qe mposhten floten osmane...
Independent of their being Islanders, the Hydriotes and Spetziotes are the descendants of an Albanian colony ; they are still called Albanians by the rest of the Greeks, who though they unite, with them for the great national work of independence, feel little union of sentimenj, and look upon them as strangers, of the same religion. This arises in some measure from their language, * but not a little from the pertinacity with which the descendants of Albanians cling to the manners and ways of thinking of their ancestors: a 'Greek of the Peloponessus would feel more like a neighbour and countryman toward a Cypriote, whose native island is far distant, than he would toward an inhabitant of Hydra, which is only 12 miles from the Morea. This marked preference given to the islanders, was a gross and palpable injury done to the rest of the Greeks, and was a most unwise and impolitic measure, on the part of the Government; for it gave a colouring of justice to the proceedings of the opposition party; and such a party, there always will be.

An historical sketch of the Greek revolution, Samuel Gridley Howe
...nga i njejti liber:
Hydra has about 30,000 inhabitants: they are the descendants of a colony of Albanians, who were driven from their homes in the north nearly two hundred years ago, ny tiie severity of Turkish despotism, to take refuge on the barren rock, wbi>;h by their industry soon became an important commercial place. The Hydrintes are an enterprising, cautious, selfish race of men: much of the same stamp perhaps as Yankees would be, if placed in a similar situation. They had more intercourse with the world by their commerce than any of their countrymen, previous to the commencement of the present war: yei they profited by it less in every way, except that of pecuniary emolument ; in lea rning and refinement they are far behind their brethren of Sc.o, or Aivali, or Constantinople. In fact they value education but little; though all of the better class can read and write out a squadron under the command of Andreas Miaulis,
who had been chosen Admiral.
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#233

Post by ALBPelasgian » Mon Feb 06, 2012 12:18 pm


THE "MESSENGER OP THE BYZANTINE PEOPLES."

A MOTHER Greek newspaper has sprung up in London within the last few weeks. Not being adorned with pictores, it is less attractive than the βρεταννικος αστιρ, and it certainly gives much less quantity for its price. But in some things it is more curious still, as it seems to be the organ of some theory—half ethnological, half political—of which we confess that we have not altogether got to the bottom. The title is an ambitious —ο αγγελος τον Βυζαντιον λαον—and these Byzantine peoples are explained to be Greeks, Slaves, Dacians, Caucasians, and Arabs. We do not know why Albanians, Copts, and Chaldrcans are left out. Otherwise, it amounts pretty well to all the nations of the Turki-h Empire, less the Turks themselves. The mention of Caucasians and Arabs shows that the views of the Αγγελος are not bounded by the limits of Europe. Is the division, then, religious, and not national? It may be that Copts and Chaldeans are too frightfully heterodox to be cared for, that Catholic and Mussulman Albanians are as bad, and that orthodox Albanians count as Greeks. But, on this view, some Greeks must go also, as we regret to say that both the Pope and the Prophet have Hellenic followers. "We must ask the Αγγελος to reconsider its division, which does not seem to us to be a logical one.

Two things at once strike us in the paper, which have evidently some purpose which we do not exactly catch. The name of Ελλιν is to be exchanged for that of Γραικος, which we cannot say that we have never seen before, but with which we certainly are much less familiar. In the like sort, the name of Rouman in the Danubian Principalities is to be cast aside; it is (we really do not see why) αδοκσον ευτελες, και δουλεκον. Instead thereof, regenerate Wallachia and Moldavia are to take up again the glorious (Ενδοκσον ) name of Dacians. All this, we suspect, is conneoted with some very elaborate theory, certainly not of Panslavism, and not exactly of Panhellenism, but of Pan-something or other which we cannot exactly catch. There is a vast deal of mythological and early historical talk in one of the numbers about Graeci and Hellenes, the value of which, whatever it may be, is somewhat discredited by the author's evident belief (not as a possibility bnt as a certainty) in Grsrcus and Hellen as actual men. A single undoubted passage in Aristotle, one or two doubtful passages elsewhere, and the universal use of Latin writers, seem to show that Greek, Γραικος, was really an older and more extensive name than Hellen. This seems to be the foundation of the doctrine of the Αγγελος. Some of the other subjects of the Porte, who are certainly not Hellenes, may possibly be claimed as brethren under the wider name of Γραικο There is a letter from a Mr. P. Beron, whose name unfortunately we do not know, on the "Thracian" language, by means of which Thracian language he explains the meaning of several local names in Greece, which certainly do not explain themselves in Greek. The editor, Mr. Koresios, candidly observes that, as he does not understand Thracian, he cannot give any opinion as to Mr. Beron's comparisons of Thracian and Greek words. We are in the same state as Mr. Koresios, or rather in a worse, as we are not even quite certain what language Mr. Beron means by " Thracian." We asked at once, Is any language spoken in Thrace besides Greek, Turkish, and Bulgarian? If there is, we should certainly like to know more about it, as the old Thracians and their disappearance are one of the puzzles of history. But from other passages we gather that Thracian and Dacian are the same; so we suppose that by "Thracian " Mr. Beron means Rouman. Then, by help of the legends about Thracians in Greece, and the undoubted fact of the presence of Rouman settlements of Greece for many centuries past, we are led to the view that Greek and Rouman are really closely allied languages—that the Soman origin of the speech of Wallachia is all a mistake—that the resemblance between Latin and Wallachian is far older, going up to the common elements in Greek and Latin. In short, the Wallachians cleave to the old Pelasgic speech of Arcadia. There is nothing in all this that is absolutely new to us as matter of curious ethnological speculation, but this is the first time that we have seen any attempt to apply it to any practical purpose. The "Αγγελος , in congratulating the two Rouman provinces on their union, calls on them most affectionately to join with their long-severed brethren the Hellenes. We cannot help fearing that a century or two of Phanariot Government will, in many Rouman minds, be considered as quite wiping out any obligations for a kindred which certainly seems to have been forgotten as early as the days of Homer.

The Roumans, Dacians, Thracians, Wallachs, or whatever wo are to call them, are just now perhaps the most interesting, in a political aspect, of all the " Byzantine Peoples." But as a matter of race ana language, we are more concerned for our old friends the Albanians. It is a palpable fact that the Orthodox Albanians have made common cause with the Greeks in a way that the other nations have never done. The revolution was almost as much an Albanian as a Greek revolution; and in a good third of the modern kingdom, the Albanians outnumber the Greeks. In all the glories and all the disgraces, in all the good and all the evil, both of the revolution and the subsequent kingdom, Albanians and Greeks have shared alike. And, amid plenty of local feuds and jealousies, w e know of no signs of any ill-feeling distinctly between Greeks as Greeks, and Albanians as Albanians. Yet, in point of language, the Albanians seem further removed from the Greeks than any of their neighbours. Their speech is now generally admitted to be Indo-European, but the fact that many scholars have doubted its Indo-European character shows that the connexion must really be slighter than that between Greek and Rouman or Slavonic. Here is a phenomenon remarkable in itself, and which sets one on divers speculations. Do these Albanians represent the Macedonians and Epeirots, who so remarkably showed the same power of helienization, rather than the Illyrians, who never showed it. Yet there are arguments the other way. The Albanian and the Greek have fraternized in spite of difference of language. Albanian is still spoken in Attica itself, and Greece has been defended by warriors, and even ruled by Ministers, who could hardly speak her tongue. But when Herodotus, in opposition to the general belief of his time, counts the Epeirots as Hellenes, it could only have been on the ground of similarity of language. Here are difficulties which the Αγγελος hardly explains by telling us that Botzares, Miaoules, and the other Albanian heroes, were all Γραικοι, and that the mysterious Selli of Homer have survived to modern days in the form of the Souliots.

There is nothing very remarkable in the general politics of the Αγγελος. As in all Greek papers that we ever saw, the mysterious internal politics of the Greek kingdom are discussed in a way which conveys very little information to a foreigner. That the Αγγελος takes the Greek and not the English view of matters in the Ionian Islands should neither surprise nor shock anybody. Coming nearer home, as much grief as that of the most loyal Englishman is expressed forthe loss of Prince Albert, and we are invited to visit the Orthodox churches in London, and to hear the fervent prayers which are there putup for the Queen andtheBoyalFamily. The treatment of the Trent business is rather amusing. While the matter is pending, we are told that England and America have both been such good friends and benefactors of Greece that a Greek can hardly venture to pronounce either to be in the wrong. But when Slidell and Mason are given up, the "Ayy«Xor openly rejoices in the bloodless triumph of right and justice. The independence and unity of Italy are hailed with delight. Italy is the dear sister, or rather the daughter of Greece. All this is satisfactory enough. It is harder to follow our Byzantine friend into the schemes which, like some people nearer home, he entertains for the conversion of the Pope, and into h's grand vision of an Oecumenical Synod of the Greek, Soman, and English Churches. This synod, for fear of rivalries between Old and New Bome, is to be held at Athens. Altogether the "AyytXot seems to take a hopeful view of things in general. It is not without hopes of hellenizing the Turks, adding that, after all, they are mostly Mahometan Greeks. This assertion sounds odd; but if we add Slaves as well as Greeks, it has more truth in it than one might at first fancy. As for the Greek kingdom, it is the child of Europe; when a child makes but little noise, it is a sign that it is going on well; as therefore we have heard but little about Greece for the last year, it is a sign that Greece is prosperous.

^The Saturday review of politics, literature, science and art, Volumes 13-14, 1862
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#234

Post by ALBPelasgian » Tue Feb 07, 2012 11:20 am

" If the fortress of the Euripus should Iki taken, the future incursions of the Turkish cavalry into the country, southward of Mount (Eta, would be perilous, and could only ho transitory; and as the Greeks would then, surround the basin of Thessaly in greater force, and would possess themselves of Tempo and of the strong passes of Mount Olympus, which separate Thessaly from Macedonia, it would probably follow, that the Turks, having no place in the former province capable of any resistance, would be under the necessity of retreating into the plains of Lower Macedonia at the head of the Thermaic gulf, unless they could secure their right flank by means of tho Albanians. But enough has already been stated to shew, that in consequence of the mutual dislike existing between the Albanian': and the Osmanlys, and of the domestic spirit of dissension in Albania, the Porte, although it may continue to employ the mercenary services of the warlike people of that country in everv part of the empire, cannot depend much upon the efforts of Albania, as an united nation, against the Greeks, and that the cause of Grecian independence, at least to the south, ward of Mount Oeta and the Ambracic gulf, will not long suffer very seriously from the vicinity of the Albanians. It is probable that Albania will gradually relapse into the barbarous state of internal discord, but national independence, which has been more or less its condition as far back as we can trace its history; which, in times of general danger, may unite its discordant districts, under the person of greatest influence or military talent, as happened in the war of George Castrioti of Kroya, (Scanderbeg) against Sultan Mahomet the Second, but which, at other times, leaves its neighbours more to apprehend from individual rapacity or from the incursions of robbers, than from the united strength or ambition of the nation.

^The London literary gazette and journal of belles lettres, arts, sciences, etc
Vep. e cit:
" The finest women in Greece are probably the Albanians, or the Suliotes; but those of the Mores are inferior in personal attractions- to the inhabitants of the isles': the Athenian women are in general considered to beplain."
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#235

Post by ALBPelasgian » Tue Feb 07, 2012 11:40 am

Ne Asamblene e pare 'greke'...
The appearance presented by this legislative assembly of Hellas was, no doubt, striking and picturesque. There were to be seen there the Maniotes, with their long flowing hair, and wide trowsers gathered round their waist the primates of the Morea, wearing a sort of turban, and pelisses lined with fur ; the captains, in their Albanian costume; Hypsilantis, in his European uniform; the senators of Hydra displayed, in their looks and appearance, magisterial pride

History of the war of independence in Greece, Volume 2, Thomas Keightley
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#236

Post by ALBPelasgian » Tue Feb 07, 2012 12:04 pm

Nga libri i shkelqyer i Edwin Jacuqes:
ALBANIAN LEADERSHIP IN THE GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE (1820-1826)

Pondering the decline and fall of Greece, Lord Byron observed, “A thousand years scarce to form a state. An hour may lay it in the dust, and when/ can man its shattered splendor renovate?” (Byron 1891, 1:2.84). Albanians seem largely instrumental in doing just that. While the sultan was preoccupied with Ali Pasha, the Greeks seized the opportunity for their own insurrection in 1820, finally achieving independence in 1826. In that war of independence, many of the outstanding leaders were descendants of the Albanians who had migrated there under John Bua Spata. The Greek islands of Sptezai, Hydra and Poros were inhabited almost exlusively by people of Albanian blood. Many of these made their livehood as fishermen. In the struggle for independence they contributed such national figures as Miaulis, Djavela, Marko Bochari and the female naval commander Laskarin Bubulina (Skendo 1919, 25). The French writer Honore de Balzac ëublished in Paris (1828) his Laments and Elegiac Songs, folk songs eulogizing Bubulina, Bochari and others, which he collected from an Albanian woman who emigrated to France (NAlb 1984, 3: 16). The British historian George Finlay, in his seven-volume History of Greece (Finlay 1877, 4:254-57) stated that in the struggle of Greece to regain her independence from Turkey, the soldiers of Suli and the sailors of the islands of Hydra and Spetzai were the bravest warriors and the most skillful mariners, and ‘these were of the purest Albanian race’. In fact it was another Briton who declared it not likely that the independence of Greece would have been achieved but for the invaluable services rendered to the revolution by the Albanians, both of Albania and Greece (Peacock 1914, 178). As confirmation, the first president of free Greece, Capodistrias (1828-1831), was born in Corfu of an Albanian family orginating in Gjirokastra (Skendo 1919, 26). It is altogether remarkable that although seperated from their mortherland for centuries, many of their descendants even yet have not lost their language, customs and traditions. One of these who distinguished himself recently in the Greek navy was Admiral Kunduriot. During the naval battle of the Dardanelles in 1912 he shouted a command to the crew of his battleship in the Albanian language. When asked afterwards why he had used this unaccustomed idiom, the admiral replied, ‘From enthusiasm!”. His response corresponds very closely to the reason given by Alexander the Great for frequently speaking to his Macedonian troops in their non-Hellenic language. On another occasion Admiral Kunduriot learned that his ship’s officers had forbidden the seamen to speak Albanian among themselves. The admiral summoned the seamen on deck and asked them, ‘A kuvëndoni Shqip, more?” (O you, do you talk together in Albanian?). The sailors looked at one another, hardly knowing what to reply. One of them took courage, and answered, ‘We do talk together in Albanian, for we are the ones who liberated Greece!” (Dituria January 1927, 86). Certainly these Greeks of Albanian origin did make a significant contribution to their adopted land. The tragic fact remained, however, that although Albanians helped free Greece from the Turkish yoke, their own land would remain under the oppressor for another 100 years.

The Albanians: an ethnic history from prehistoric times to the present, Edwin E. Jacques, 1995, pp. 327-28
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#237

Post by ALBPelasgian » Tue Feb 07, 2012 3:25 pm


It is only in this last way that the Greek and the Servian revolutions are at all brought together. Each was an indirect help to the other, by diverting a part of the Turkish force ; but the two struggles could hardly be said to be carried on in concert. Many causes joined together to stir up the spirit of the Greek nation. When we speak of the Greek nation, we must remember that the Greeks and those Albanians who belong to the Orthodox Church have always had a strong tendency to draw together. A large part of Greece was at various times settled by Albanians, and among these should be specially mentioned the people of the small islands of Hydra and Spezza, because they did great things for the cause. But there are Albanians in other parts of Greece also, and it must be remembered that the Albanians generally, both Christian and Mahometan, have always kept up a strong national feeling. Christians and Mahometans alike have always been discontented, and often rebellious, subjects of the Turk. Some of them were able to maintain their independence for a long time in wild parts among the mountains. Such were the people of Souli, Christian Albanians who were never fully subdued till 1803, when they were overcome by AH of Joannina. This was a conquest of Christians by Mahometans ; but it was not a conquest of Christians by Turks. It was in truth a conquest of Albanians by Albanians. Ali was a cruel and faithless tyrant ; still he was not a Turk, but an Albanian ; he was a rebel against the Sultan, and he was so far an indirect friend of the Sultan's enemies. And, like many other tyrants, among all his own evil deeds, he did a certain amount of good by keeping smaller oppressors in order. Thus the most opposite things joined together to weaken the Turkish power and to stir up the spirit of the Greeks. The way in which the Souliots withstood Ali, and the way in which Ali withstood the Sultan, both helped. Just at the end of his life, Ali, who had destroyed the freedom of Souli and Parga, was actually in alliance with the Greeks who had risen up to win their own
freedom.

***
Among the foremost in the struggle were the men of some of the islands, the Albanians of Hydra and Spezza, and the Greeks of Psara. These islands were among the parts of the Turkish dominions which suffered least, or rather they did not directly suffer at all. They contributed a quota of men to the Sultan's fleet, and beyond that were left to themselves.

***
Therefore great things were done in the War of Independence by those who were themselves nearest to independence. Such were the two foremost men of the War of Independence by sea, the Albanian Andrew Miaoules of Hydra and the Greek Constantine Kanares of Psara.

The Greek revolution was mainly the work of the Greeks themselves, counting among them the Christian Albanians. They had some help, but not very much, from the other subject nations. The Servians had their own war of independence going on ; but a few Bulgarian and Rouman volunteers did good service in Greece. But more was done by volunteers from
England, France, and other western countries
.
Lord Byron's name is well known as one who in his latter days gave himself for the Greek cause, and much was done by other Englishmen, as Lord Cochrane, Sir Richard Church, General Gordon, and Captain
Hastings, the worthy fellow of Miaoules and Kanares by sea. These are men whose names should be remembered in days like ours, when Englishmen sel themselves to the service of the barbarian. And great things were done by the Greeks and Albanians themselves, as by the Souliot hero Mark Botzares, ana by Alexander Mavrokordatos, who was not a military man, but a Fanariot of Constantinople, almost the only one of that class who did anything. He bravely defended Mesolongi against the Turks in one of its two sieges. In short, among many ups and downs, the Greeks, with such help as they had, were able to hold the greater part of Greece itself against the Turks. From European governments, Russian or any other, they had no help. Most powers were against them ; none were for them ; till at length things took such a course that Christian rulers could not for very shame keep themselves from stepping in. After the war had gone on for some years, Sultan Mahmoud found that neither his massacres in other places nor the armies which he sent against Greece itself could break the spirit of the Greek people. Greece at one end, Servia at the other end, were too strong for him.

^Edward Augustus Freeman. The Ottoman power in Europe, its nature, its growth, and its decline [microform] /by Edward A. Freeman. (page 14 of 24
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#238

Post by ALBPelasgian » Tue Feb 07, 2012 3:49 pm

People, Manners,. — The following statements embody the valuable testimony of Thiersch as to the habits and state of the people when he visited Greece in 1831 -32: —" There is a pretty marked distinction among the inhabs. of the three great divisions of Greece — Greece N. of the Isthmus, the Peloponnesus, and the Islands. The inhabitants of N. Greece have retained a chivalrous and warlike spirit, with a simplicity of manners and mode of life, which strongly remind us of the pictures of the heroic age. The soil here is generally cultivated by Bulgarians, Albanians, and Wallachians. In £. Greece, Parnassus, with its natural bulwarks, is the only place where the Hellenic race has maintained itself: in the mountainous parts of W. Greece there are also some remnants of Hellenic stock. In these parts the language is spoken with more purity than elsewhere. The pop. of the Peloponnesus consists nearly of the same races as that of N. Greece, but the Peloponnesians are more Ignorant and less honest than the inhabitants of Hellas. The Albanians occupy Argolis and a part of the ancient Triphylia. Among the rest of the inhab., who all speak Greek, there are considerable social differences. The pop. of the towns is of a mixed character, as in N. Greece; where there is an active and Intelligent body of proprietors, merchants, and artisans in the towns, and among them some of Greek stock. The Malnotes form a separate class of the pop.: they are generally called Mainotes from the name of one of their districts; but their true name, which they have never lost, is Spartans. They occupy the lofty and sterile mountains between the Gulphs of Laconia and Messenia, the representatives of a race driven from the sunny valley of the Eurotas to the bleak and Inhospitable tracts o'f Taygetos, though the plains which arc spread out below them are no longer held by a conqueror, and the fertile lands lie uncultivated for want of labourers. In the Islands, there- Is a singular mixture of Albanians and Greeks. The Albanians of Hydra and Spezzia have long been known as active traders and excellent mariners, The Hydriotes made great sacrifices for the cause of independence in the late war; the Spezzlotes, more prudent and calculating, increased their wealth and their merchant navy. The island of Syra, which has long been the centre of an active commerce, now contains the remnant of the pop. of Ipsara and Chios. The Ipsariots are au active and handsome race, and skilful seamen; the Chiots, following the habits of their ancestois, are fond of staying at home and attending to their shops and mercantile speculations; they amass wealth, but they employ it In founding establishments of public utility, and In the education of their children. In linos, the peasants, who are also the proprietors, cultivate the vine and the fig even amidst the most barren rocks: in Syra, Santorin, and at Naxos, they are the tenants of a miserable race of nobility, whose origin Is traced to the time of the crusades, and who still retain the Latin creed of their ancestors. Besides these, there are various bodies of Stiliotcs, of people from the heights of Olvmpus, Cantliotes, many Greek families from Asia Minor, Fanariotes, and others, who have emigrated, or been driven by circumstances within the limits of the new kingdom. The Ipsariots are those who arc supposed to have the least Intermixture of foreign blood. They have the fine and characteristic Greek physiognomy, as preserved in the marbles of Phidias and other ancient sculptors; they are "ingenious, loquacious, lively to excess, active, enterprising, vapouring, and disputatious." The modern Greeks are generally rather above the middle height, and well shaped; they have the face oval, features regular and expressive, eyes large, dark and animated, eyebrows arched, hair long and dark, and complexions olivecoloured." (Journal of Education, xvii.)
The islanders are commonly darker, and of a stronger make than the rest; but the Greeks are all active, hardy, brave, and capable of enduring long privations. Generally speaking, the women of the islands and of Hellas are much handsomer than those of the Morea. The character of the Greeks, while under the Turks, was thus summed up by Mr. Hope. (Anastasius, 1. 78—80.) "The complexion of the modern Greek may receive a different cast from different surrounding objects: the core is still the same as in the days of Pericles. Credulity, versatility, and the thirst of distinctions, from the earliest periods formed, still form, and ever will form, the basis of the Greek character. . . When patriotism, public spirit, and pre-eminence in arts, science, literature, and warfare, were the road to distinction, the Greeks shone the first of patriots, of heroes, of painters, of poets, and of philosophers. Now that craft and subtlety, adulation and intrigue, are the only paths to greatness, the same Greeks arc — what you see them!
The Albanians are of a much more serious and pensive disposition than the Greeks; and it has been remarked that they may be considered to bear the same relation to the hitter that the Doric did to the Ionic population In ancient times. The language of the modern Greeks (for the Albanian is of Illy rian origin), is called Hamate, It has a greater similarity to the ancient Greek than the Italian to the Latin; but many of the alterations from the ancient tongues which distinguish both the modern languages arc analogous. Many
of the popular customs ot the Greeks bear the impress ot antiquity ; ■various superstitious observances are kept a> and even the ordinary amusements of the people are the same which were popular in ancient time*. The farfamed Jlomaiea, tor instance, the theme of so many travellers, is obviously the same as the Cretan or D» dalian dance; and another modem dance, the Jtb&natico. Is supposed to resemble the Pyrrhic dance of the ancients.

A dictionary, geographical, statistical, and historical: of the ..., Volume 1
By John Ramsay McCulloc
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#239

Post by ALBPelasgian » Tue Feb 07, 2012 4:48 pm

It seems to us that a little consideration enables one to answer this question with tolerable confidence. Though not Greeks,—the learned Athenian professor seems to have exaggerated the slight tie of kindred between the Epirote and the Greek,—the Albanians have always shown a marked predilection and receptivity for Greek ideas. Not Hellenic, they are still Hellenoid; Albania gravitates towards Greece, and tends to take a path of subordinate revolution around that rich centre of thoughts and memories, like a dependent planet round its central sun. One might quote many illustrations of this tendency. The classical scholar will remember that the Molossian kings prided themselves on their supposed descent from Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles; that the readiness of the Epirote tribes to ally themselves with Greek enterprises is apparent from several passages in Thucydides ;3 and that the court of Pyrrhus at Ambracia represented almost exclusively Greek ideas and Greek civilisation. The same tendency reappears in modern times. The Hydriotes and Speziotes, those brave islanders who played so prominent a part in the Greek revolution, were of pure Albanian race. When Byron sought for some modern evidences to prove that the great Hellenic spirit was not extinct, he turned to the Albanian Suliotes:
" On Suli's top and Parga's shore
Exists the remnant of a line
Suoh as the Dorian mothers bore;
And there perhaps some seed is sown
The Heracleidau blood might own."

It is true that the Mahomedan Albanians were fatally active and formidable enemies of Greek independence; but they did not become so until the insurgents had made it plain that they meant to turn the revolution into a religious war. At the commencement of the struggle, large bodies of them sided with the Greeks; and if the latter had had the good fortune to find a leader who, while availing himself of their religious enthusiasm, was firm and wise enough to confine the avowed objects of the struggle to the grand issue of national independence, the Albanians, who have a hereditary hatred for the Turks, would for the most part have flocked to the revolutionary standard. But when their religion was attacked, their pride took alarm; and the conduct of the Greek chiefs was in other points so disgraceful, and marked by such incompetency, that they lost faith in the success of the cause. At the present day the tendency of the Epirotes, or southern Albanians, to unite themselves to Greece seems to be as strong as ever. Miss Bremer, the latest authority on the state of Greece, who certainly had access to excellent sources of information, repeatedly speaks of Epirus as being " ready to rise" in aid of any general Hellenic movement against the Turks. The time for such a movement may be yet far off. Greece, in her own internal affairs, offers so wide a field for improvement, that if the great powers should insist upon her confining herself for some time to come to measures of domestic reform, and should discountenance, as they did in 1854, any premature attempt to extend her frontier, the prohibition could hardly be complained of. But when the inevitable day arrives, there seems reason to suppose that, if properly managed, the Albanians of all creeds will echo the Greek cry for independence. Not that it would be either easy or desirable to make Albania an integral portion of a bureaucratically organised Hellenic kingdom. Some sort of federal tie is the only one which would suit the circumstances;— perhaps a cantonal organisation, on the Swiss mcdel, of the whole of Albania, leaving large local powers to the several cantonal governments, and providing for their representation by deputies in a general diet. Neither the " free Albanians," mostly Christians, of the pashalic of Scutari, nor the Mahomedan Tosks farther south, would be likely to submit to a more centralised form of government. But a grand Hellenic federation, with its centre at Constantinople, preserving the fidelity of many non-Greek or partially-Greek races, by wisely conforming itself to local circumstances and conditions,—a free powerful Christian state which, standing in the place of the Byzantine empire, should introduce modern ideas and modern science into the torpid East, instead of suppressing both after the fashion of its predecessor,—such a prospect as this would probably be enough to satisfy the most fervent Philhellene, even though political unity in the Mazzinian sense were still far from being realised.

^The Home and foreign review, Volume 3
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#240

Post by ALBPelasgian » Mon Feb 13, 2012 10:09 pm

Kjo pjese meriton te jete te 'Quotes about Albanians' por meqe tagenton edhe fqinjet tane te jugut, atehere do e le vetem ketu. Nenvizimet jane jashtezakonisht interesante. Lexim te kendshem!

Essays: English and American.
The Harvard Classics. 1909–14.

Race and Language

Edward Augustus Freeman

There we may still find all the chief races which have ever occupied the country, still remaining distinct, still keeping separate tongues, and those for the most part, their own original tongues. Within the present and late European dominions of the Turk, the original races, those whom we find there at the first beginnings of history, are all there still, and two of them keep their original tongues. They form three distinct nations. First of all there are the Greeks. We have not here to deal with them as the representatives of that branch of the Roman Empire which adopted their speech, but simply as one of the original elements in the population of the Eastern peninsula. Known almost down to our own day by their historical name of Romans, they have now fallen back on the name of Hellenes. And to that name they have a perfectly good claim. If the modern Greeks are not all true Hellenes, they are an aggregate of adopted Hellenes gathered round and assimilated to a true Hellenic kernel. Here we see the oldest recorded inhabitants of a large part of the land abiding, and abiding in a very different case from the remnants of the Celt and the Iberian in Western Europe. The Greeks are no survival of a nation; they are a true and living nation, a nation whose importance is quite out of its proportion to its extent in mere numbers. They still abide, the predominant race in their own ancient and again independent land, the predominant race in those provinces of the continental Turkish dominion which formed part of their ancient land, the predominant race through all the shores and islands of the AEgaean and of part of the Euxine also. In near neighborhood to the Greeks still live another race of equal antiquity, the Skipetar or Albanians. These, as I believe is no longer doubted, represent the ancient Illyrians. The exact degree of their ethnical kindred with the Greeks is a scientific question which need not here be considered; but the facts that they are more largely intermingled with the Greeks than any of the other neighboring nations, that they show a special power of identifying themselves with the Greeks, a power, so to speak, of becoming Greeks and making part of the artificial Greek nation, are matters of practical history. It must never be forgotten, that among the worthies of the Greek War of Independence, some of the noblest were not of Hellenic but Albanian blood. The Orthodox Albanian easily turns into a Greek; and the Mahometan Albanian is something which is broadly distinguished from a Turk. He has, as he well may have, a strong national feeling, and that national feeling has sometimes got the better of religious divisions. If Albania is among the most backward parts of the peninsula, still it is, by all accounts, the part where there is most hope of men of different religions joining together against the common enemy.
Here then are two ancient races, the Greeks and another race, not indeed so advanced, so important, or so widely spread, but a race which equally keeps a real national being. There is also a third ancient race which survives as a distinct people, though they have for ages adopted a foreign language. These are the Vlachs or Roumans, the surviving representatives of the great race, call it Thracian or any other, which at the beginning of history held the great inland mass of the Eastern peninsula, with the Illyrians to the west of them and the Greeks to the south. Every one knows, that in the modern principality of Roumania and in the adjoining parts of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, there is to be seen that phenomenon so unique in the East, a people who not only, as the Greeks did till lately, still keep the Roman name, but who speak neither Greek nor Turkish, neither Slav nor Skipetar, but a dialect of Latin, a tongue akin, not to the tongues of any of their neighbors, but to the tongues of Gaul, Italy, and Spain. And any one who has given any real attention to this matter knows that the same race is to be found, scattered here and there, if in some parts only as wandering shepherds, in the Slavonic, Albanian, and Greek lands south of the Danube. The assumption has commonly been that this outlying Romance people owe their Romance character to the Roman colonization of Dacia under Trajan. In this view, the modern Roumans would be the descendants of Trajan's colonists and of Dacians who had learned of them to adopt the speech and manners of Rome. But when we remember that Dacia was the first Roman province to be given up--that the modern Roumania was for ages the highway of every barbarian tribe on its way from the East to the West--that the land has been conquered and settled and forsaken over and over again,--it would be passing strange if this should be the one land, and its people the one race, to keep the Latin tongue when it has been forgotten in all the neighboring countries. In fact, this idea has been completely dispersed by modern research. The establishment of the Roumans in Dacia is of comparatively recent date, beginning only in the thirteenth century. The Roumans of Wallachia, Moldavia, and Transsilvania, are isolated from the scattered Rouman remnant on Pindos and elsewhere. They represent that part of the inhabitants of the peninsula which became Latin, while the Greeks remained Greek, and the Illyrians remained barbarian. Their lands, Moesia, Thrace specially so called, and Dacia, were added to the empire at various times from Augustus to Trajan. That they should gradually adopt the Latin language is in no sort wonderful. Their position with regard to Rome was exactly the same as that of Gaul and Spain. Where Greek civilization had been firmly established, Latin could nowhere displace it. Where Greek civilization was unknown, Latin overcame the barbarian tongue. It would naturally do so in this part of the East exactly as it did in the West.

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