"Moreover, you scorned our people, and compared the Albanese to sheep, and according to your custom think of us with insults. Nor have you shown yourself to have any knowledge of my race. Our elders were Epirotes, where this Pirro came from, whose force could scarcely support the Romans. This Pirro, who Taranto and many other places of Italy held back with armies. I do not have to speak for the Epiroti. They are very much stronger men than your Tarantini, a species of wet men who are born only to fish. If you want to say that Albania is part of Macedonia I would concede that a lot more of our ancestors were nobles who went as far as India under Alexander the Great and defeated all those peoples with incredible difficulty. From those men come these who you called sheep. But the nature of things is not changed. Why do your men run away in the faces of sheep?"
Letter from Skanderbeg to the Prince of Taranto ▬ Skanderbeg, October 31 1460

Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

Sillni harta historike fiziko-politike-etnografike, që pasqyrojnë realitetin etnik dhe politik të një rajoni të caktuar, në një periudhë të caktuar.

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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#256

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sat Apr 21, 2012 7:02 pm

Are the Modern Greeks Slavs? — The question of the ethnological origin of the modern Greeks has been a mooted one for the past three centuries ;but the consensus of opinion among Hellenists today is that the people of modern Greece are not Greeks of the classic type, but in reality Slavs of a mixed character. Professor Krumbacker, of the University of Munich, probably the most eminent neo-Hellenist and Byzantist living, has just added to the discussion his conclusion (set forth in the Byzantische Zeitschriji, Munich). It is based largely on photographs representing the different types of modern Greeks.He insists that the sentimental interests of philo-Hellenism must give way to scientific methods, which require that the Greeks be no longer studied in their isolation, but as a member of the Balkan family. The Byzantines, from whom the modern Greeks descend, were not an unmixed race, and the Greeks of today are a peculiar amalgamation of Greek and foreign elements. Among them,in addition to Roman and Oriental blood, is also barbarian blood, especially Slavic and Germanic, as seen in the physical, moral, and material make-up of the nation." — Translation made for The Literary Digest.

^The Literary Digest, Volume 23
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#257

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sat Apr 21, 2012 7:03 pm

'This contains the Greeks, ancient and modern; the latter with an undoubtedly, the former with a probably, large amount of mixed blood...'

^The circle of the sciences, James Wylde, 1862
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#258

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sat Apr 21, 2012 7:09 pm

Servians, Montenegrins, Bulgarians, Greeks, or whatever they may be called, they are for the most part of pure or mixed blood from that great Slavic people which have played and are playing such a strong part in the affairs of Europe

^California outlook, Volume 13, 1912, p. 28
"...there is probably even less Slavic blood in Russia proper than Hellenic in modern Greece".

^Once a week, Eneas Sweetland Dallas, 1873, p. 360
To what degree the ancient and the modern races of Greece differ in character and civilization may be still more difficult to determine than their physical types. The most contradictory accounts are given by partisans on this point. It can not be denied at least that the ancient Greeks were leaders in the civilization of tlieir own day-, and laid the foundations of modern civilization ; while modern Greece is one of the weaker nations of Europe. The ancient Greeks were l.reeminent in philosophy and science, a position not generally accredited to the modeni Greeks as a race, although there is no doubt as to their nimble intelligence. They compete with the Hebrew race as the best traders of the Orient. If there be a great dif- ference between the ancient and the modern civilization of Greece, the question still remains whether this change should be explained as simply the decadence of an ancient race or because of the debasement it has received, as did the civilization of the Koman, through the incursions of barbarian hordes, and, in recent history, through the long oppression of Turkish rule. It is not generally understood that the language of the modern Greeks is really the language of the ancient Greeks. The difference is only dialectal. The literary language of today is but a continuation of the main literary dialect of ancient Greece, the Attic, as modified in passing through tlu' P.yzanline. It, or rather the mo ern vernacular, is sometimes called Romaic, a misleading term, which found its origin in the period of Roman supremacy. To this day the Greeks living in Euroiieau Turkey are called Romtiika. There are several dialects of the modern Greek or Romaic, such as the Mainot, the Phanariot, and the Cypriot, which need no further discussion in this connection. Of late there is a tendency among Greek authors to return more closely to the ancient form of the language. The spoken dialects of Greece vary more widely from it, al- though the so-called Tsaconic, which is- spoken on the eastern side of lower Greece (Peloponnesus or ^Nlorea), closely resembles the ancient Dorian. The modern language is much closer to the ancient than any modern de- scendant of the Latin is to the ancient Latin. Greek is no longer spoken by the Greek colonists of southern Italy, nor even by many of the Greeks of Asia Minor. Crete is practically all Greek, and even southern Macedonia and the coast as far east as Constantiople itself, which has a larger population of Greeks than of Turks. As has been explained in the article "Turkish" (see), the Turks themselves form but a small minority of the populatlon of Turkey. The Greek race of to-day is intensely proud of its language and its history, and naturally wishes to be considered as genuinely Hellenic. The official title of the country is now the " Kingdom of Hellas," and any citizen, however mixed in race, styles himself a Hellene. The peoi)le are wide-awake on political questions, are avid readers of newsi)apers, and. like the Greek of olden times, eager to learn some new thing. Generally speaking, in c-ustonis, superstitions, and folklore, llie modern race Is a continuation of the ancient. It shows in other respects, as in the clothing now worn, the influence of the mixture of races. As already intimated, the race is commercial rather than agricultural In its instincts, and in that respect differs from the Slavic, by which it is supposed to be modified. In religion it is Orthodox (Greek), which is also the national church of Russia and several other countries of eastern and southeastern Europe. It is from this expansion of the Greek religion that much confusion has arisen in the use of the racial name. Even Rutheuians (see), or Little Russians, in America sometimes call themselves Greeks, apparently in contradistinction from their Slavic neighbors, who are Catholic. Statistics published by Greek partisans are said to exaggerate the number of Greeks found in Turkey by counting as such Bulgarians, Servians, and others who have become Hellenized* and are members of the Greek Church. How many of the inhabitants of Greece itself are really non-Grecian in race is a question diflicult to answer. No statistics of the country are taken by race. It is well known, however, that eastern Greece, even in the Peloponnesus, has a large Albanian popu- lation, usually estimated at about 200,000. They are so fully Hellenized that but 40,000 now speak the Albanian language. This is perhaps the chief foreign element that is incorr)orated into the Greek race, although special account must be made also of the Slavic, the Turkish, the Roman, and the (Jothlc, and even the Roumanian (Kutzo-Vlach, or Tsintsar). The last named is so recent in arrival that it is hardly yet incorporated into the race. It has come in largely since (Jreec-e was freed from Turkish rule, in ISoO, and still forms large settlements extending from the central part of northern Greece into Macedonia. The Slavic element is the oldest that has profoundly modified the stock of ancient Greece. By the sixth century Greece had been overrun time and again by Slavic tribes to the very southern extremity of the country.

^Dictionary of races or peoples
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#259

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sat Apr 21, 2012 7:14 pm

They themselves knew the differences in their origins and in such traditions as they had : some were Slavs, some Vlachs, and some
Albanians ; some had the blood of Trajan's legionaries
in their veins, whatever that was.
But they felt more deeply than they thought; the hardships of their com-
mon lot and the common worship of their church gave
them a stronger sense of unity than of disunity; they
were all non-Moslems, all rayahs, and in a sense all
Greeks
.
Moreover, as explained in another connec-
tion, among the most useful servants of the Sultans
were the old Greek Byzantine families who lived at
Constantinople in the quarter of Phanar
. These Pha-
nariotes were invaluable as administrators and diplo-
mats ; resourceful, guileful, smooth, elegant, refined ;
and for their precious services they received great re-
wards. They were the Greeks par excellence ; and, run-
ning to and fro within the empire, to and fro without, they impressed
upon all that if there were a second race destined to restore the
empire of Grecian Rome, they, their co-religionists, those who spoke their tongue,
were the coming people.

Hence, within the memory of men still living it was
the general conviction that a greater Greece would
one day hold all Turkey in Europe, and that the light
of Greek civilization, rekindled in Attica and on the
Peloponnesus, would shoot northward to enlist the
whole Greek Church within Turkish boundaries in the
"great idea," to wit, the restoration of Byzantium in
new and regenerate form. This, though it is now
stoutly denied, is still the "great idea" of that portion
of Turkey first to be emancipated, namely, the present
kingdom of Greece, whose inhabitants speak a reno-
vated Greek or Romaic, live on the ideals of ancient
Greece, and have with set purpose forgotten the
Albanian, Slavic, or other blood that flows in their
veins
.
Coming from the West, travelers differ widely
about the advance of modern Greece in Western civili-
zation ; but one familiar with the Orient, and coming
to Greece from that quarter, realizes the enormous
progress which the little population of about three
millions has made in unifying, elevating, and purifying
itself for the task it has set itself. So recently as the
year before last (1912) it might have been truly
asserted that the Greek government had made nothing
but tactical mistakes, and that Greece had gathered no
fruit from her national regeneration. But she bided
her time, and the agitations among the Christian popu-
lations still left to Turkey in Europe were attributed
in large measure, and in all likelihood correctly, to sup-
plies of Greek men and money.

What and who are these modern Greeks ? The ques-
tion will be answered at greater length in another place. Modem
For the present a paragraph must suffice. The most Greeks
skeptical investigators admit that in most of them is
some blood transmitted from ancient Greece, and that
there is a proportion of Greek descent in Greece about
equal to that of Anglo-Saxon descent in America. For
the rest the modern Greeks are either Albanian or Slav
or Vlach.
Besides the Greeks in Greece there are other Greeks who far outnumber them. They are found on
all the coasts of the Ottoman empire; Crete and the
other islands, until very lately under Turkish sover-
eignty, have no other inhabitants important in num-
bers ; they are numerous in Asia Minor, in Syria, and
in Egypt
.
That they have a national type and a na-
tional character is undoubted, and they themselves
estimate their numbers at twelve millions. This is at
best an approximation and, as will be explained later,
something of an exaggeration. For the most part
these Greeks are faithful adherents of the Greek Cath-
olic Church. While domiciled elsewhere, they remain
passionate in devotion to the Greece they style Hellas,
the modern kingdom whose people are called Hel-
lenes; and, being masters of commerce and finance,
many of them have gained enormous fortunes, from
which they pour great sums into Athens particularly,
but into Greece generally, for public buildings and en-
dowments. To the outer barbarians who later deluged
it, the East Roman empire, Greek as it was in speech
and character, was known as Rome or Rom or Rum.
The language spoken there has never ceased to be
spoken. After eighteen hundred years of devolution or
evolution, according to the point of view, it is still spoken by these millions, and, for the reason just given, it is by them called Romaic, to distinguish it from the
Hellenic, which means either pure old Greek, or the
modern written language of educated Greeks in Greece,
a language really renovated and cultivated by enrich-
ment from classical Greek. In this remodeling, modern
Greek resembles modern Norwegian. The passion for
nationality, equally strong in the extreme northwest
and southeast of Europe, has in both had recourse to
the same means for securing apartness and distinction.
Albania At first sight it seems very curious that the national
costume of modern Greece was adopted or adapted
from that of a stock not Greek at all, a little folk the
most remarkable of the European continent, namely,
the Albanians
,
a people, as far as we know, absolutely
without any close, or at least calculable, affinity with
any other, whether of race, speech, or institutions;
still using the oldest known European language; retaining, without unity of religion, habitat or manners,
a unity of nature, appearance, and character which sets
them absolutely apart from the surrounding popula-
tions, with whom they mingle freely but do not
coalesce. The explanation is that in a high sense they
are the makers of modern Greece
.
But if modern Greece owes much to the Albanians, seems as if her ambition were quenched, her destiny thwarted, by the rejuvenescence of another folk-stock which is not even approximately indigenous, but with-
in historic times has come from afar. It is called
Slavic because it uses a Slavic tongue, a language which
the immigrant nomads brought with them and gradu-
ally forced upon populations which had known Roman
culture. These populations were in a measure Aryan,
that is, related in speech and structure to other Euro-
peans, but with them was intermingled generously a
middle Asiatic race called Bulbars. These elements



HAMIDIAN RULE 41

gradually melted into one stem, which now comprises
Servians, Illyrians, Croatians, Bosnians, Herzego-
vinians, Montenegrins, Macedonians, and Bulgarians.
The two districts of Moldavia and Wallachia, which
form the present kingdom of Rumania, were not en-
tirely engulfed by the wandering hordes of Slavs; at
least they retained the form of a Romance language,
and in many districts they kept their Roman-Moesian
blood fairly pure. Surrounded on all sides by Slav-
speaking peoples, they have not escaped Slavic in-
fluences in vocabulary and social qualities, but they are
as pure a race as any other not a recently mixed one,
as are Turks, English, Americans, and their own Bul-
garian neighbors.

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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#260

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sat Apr 21, 2012 7:16 pm

Owing to the pressure of other literary labors, this volume has been too rapidly prepared for the press, to allow me to add a special chapter on the Ethnology of Greece, as I had originally designed. I can only record my complete conviction of the truth of the views entertained by Fallmerayer, that the modern Greeks are a mongrel race, in which the Slavic element is predominant, and that the pure Hellenic blood is to be found only in a few localities.

Travels in Greece and Russia, Bayard Taylor, 1872
"...not one-fifth of the present population can with justice be called Greeks. The remainder are Slavonians, Albanians and Turks, with a slight admixture of Venetian blood." (p. 261)
Only in Maina, on the slopes of Parnassus and in parts of Doris, did I find the ancient type in any considerable amount." (p.262)
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#261

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sat Apr 21, 2012 7:17 pm

Large masses of Albanians also entered the country in the fourteenth and again in the eighteenth century. Twelve percent, of the present population of the Peloponnesus and 11 per cent, of the population of entire Greece are Albanian.

^ The universal cyclopaedia, 1900, p. 285
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#262

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sun Apr 22, 2012 6:33 pm

The southern part of the peninsula is occupied by Greece. The inhabitants, who call themselves Hellenes, never tire of boasting of their descent from the people of ancient Hellas; hence they consider themselves the leading nation of the Balkans. These "Greeks" are of mixed origin. Although speaking a language founded on ancient Greek, they are descendants mainly of Slavic tribes who invaded the country and intermarried with the native Hellenes and their slaves. The inhabitants of the islands near Greece are, however, in large part of pure Hellenic blood.

^Modern and contemporary European history, Jacob Salwyn Schapiro, James Thomson Shotwell, 1918
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#263

Post by ALBPelasgian » Mon Apr 23, 2012 1:46 pm

Phoenician merchants and Roman conquerors scarcely modified the elements composing the pjopulation of Hellas, but during the age of migrations barbarians in large numbers penetrated into Greece. For more than two centuries did the Avares maintain themselves in the Peloponnesvis. Then came the Slavs, aided, onmore than one occasion, by the plague in depopulating the country. Greece becamea Slavonia, and a Slavonian language, probably Servian, was universally spoken,aa is proved by the majority of geographical names. The superstitions and legends of the modern Greeks, as has been remarked by many authors, are not simply a heritage derived from the ancient Hellenes, but have become enriched by phantoms and vampires of Slav Invention. The dress of the Greeks, too, is a legacy of their northern conquerors. But. in spite of this, the polished language of the Hellenes has regained by degrees its ancient preponderance, and the race has so thoroughly amalgamated these foreign immigrants, that it is impossible now to trace any Servian elements in the population. But hardly had Hellas escaped the danger of becoming Slav when it was threatened with becoming Albanian. This occurred during the dominion of Venice. As recently as the commencement of the present century Albanian was the dominant language of Elis, Argos, Bceotia, and Attica,and even at the present day a hundred thousand supposed Hellenes still speak it. The actual population of Greece is, therefore, a very mixed one, but it is difficult to say in what proportions these Hellenic, Slav, and Albanian elements have combined. The Maiuotes, or Maniotes, of the peninsula terminating in Cape Matapan, are generally supposed to be the Greeks of the purest blood.They themselves claim to be the descendants of the ancient Spartans, and amongst their strongholds they still point out one which belonged to " Signor Lycurgus." Their Coimcils of Elders have preserved from immemorial times, and down to the war of independence, the title of Senate of Lacedadmonia. Every Mainote professes to love unto death " Liberty, the highest of all goods, inherited fromour Spartan ancestors." Nevertheless, a good many localities in Maina bear names derived from the Servian, and these prove, at all events, that the Slavs resided in the country for a considerable time. The Mainotes practise the vendeta, as if they were Montenegrins. But is not this a common custom amongst all uncivilised nations ?

However this may be, in spite of invasions and intermixture with other races, the Greeks of to-day agree in most points with the Greeks of the past. Above all things, they have preserved their language, and it is truly matter for surprise that the vulgar Greek, though derived from a rural dialect, should
differ so slightly only from the literary language. The differences, analogous to what may be observed with respect to the languages derived from the Latin, are restricted almost to two points, viz. the contraction of non-accentuated syllables and the use of auxiliary verbs. It was, therefore, easy for the modern Greeks to purify their language from barbarisms and foreign terms, and to
restore it gradually to what it was in the time of Thucydides. Xor has the
race changed much in its physical features, for in most districts of modem Greece the ancient types may yet be recognised. The Bceotian is still distinguished by that heavy gait which made him an object of ridicule amongst the other Greeks ; the Athenian youth possesses the suppleness, grace of move-
ment and bearing which we admire so much in the horsemen sculptxired onthe friezes of the Parthenon ; the Spartan women have preserved that haughty and vigorous beauty which constituted the charm of the virgins of Doris. As regards morals, the descent of the modem Hellenes is equally evident. Like
their ancestors, they are fond of change, and inquisitive ; as the descendants of free citizens, they have preserved a feeling of equality ; and, still infatuatedwith dialectics, they hold forth at all times as if they were in the ancient market-place, or Agora. They frequently stoop to flattery : like the ancient
Greeks, too, they are apt to rate intellectual merit above purity of morals. Like sage Ulysses of the Homeric poem, tliej- well know Low to lie and clieat with grace ; and the truthful Acarnanian and the Mainote, who are " slow to promise, but sure to keep," are looked upon as rural oddities. Another
trait in the character of the modern and ancient Greeks, and one which distinguishes them from all other Europeans, is this — that they do not allow themselves to be carried away by passion, except in the cause of patriotism.The Greek is a stranger to melancholy : he loves life, and is determined to enjoy
it. In battle he .may throw it away, but suicide is a species of deathunknown amongst the modern Greeks, and the more unhappy they are, the more they cling to existence. They are very seldom afflicted with insanity.



Fig. 10. — Foreign Elements in the Popvlation of Greece.


In spite of the diverse elements which compose it, the Greek nationality isone of the most homogeneous in Europe. The Albanians, of Pelasgian descent like the Greeks, do not cede to the latter in patriotism ; and it was they — theSuliotes, Hydriotes, Spezziotes — who fought most valiantly for national independence. The eight hundred flimilies of Rumanian or Kutzo-Wallachian Zinzareswho pasture their herds in the hills of Acarnania and iEtolia, and are known asKara-Gunis, or " black cloaks," .speak the two languages, and sometimes marryGreek girls, though they never give their own daughters in marriage to the Greeks. Haughty and free, they are not sufficiently numerous to be of any greatimportance. To foreigners the Greeks are rather intolerant, and they take nopains to render their stay amongst them agreeable. The Turks — who were numerous formerly in certain parts of the Peloponnesus, in Boeotia, and iu the island of Eutoca, and wliose presence recalled an unbuppy period of servitude —have fled to a man, and only the fez, the narghile, and the slippers remind us oftheir former presence. The Jews, though met with in every town of the East,whether Slav or Mussulman, dare hardly enter the presence of the Greeks, who are, moreover, their most redoubtable rivals in matters of finance : they are to befound only in the Ionian Islands, where they managed to get a footing during the British Protectorate. In this same Archipelago we likewise meet with thedescendants of the ancient Venetian colonists, and with emigrants from all parts of Italy. French and Italian families still form a distinct element of the popu-lation of Naxos, Santorin, and Syra. As to the Maltese porters and gardenersat Athens and Corfu, they continue for the most part in subordinate positions, and never associate with the Greeks.

Elisée Reclus.
The universal geography : earth and its inhabitants (Volume 1 Southern Europe)
.
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#264

Post by Zeus10 » Mon Apr 23, 2012 5:01 pm

Nevertheless, a good many localities in Maina bear names derived from the Servian, and these prove, at all events, that the Slavs resided in the country for a considerable time.
That's not true at all. There is not such a thing as : "Slavic tribes" or "Slavic genes". Bearing Slavic names for some of the places, not necesseraly means Slavic residency, but it rather shows the Slavism spreading through the religion. That means that even the so called Greece has fallen under Bulgarian Church administrtion for some time. No Serbian tribes, has ever put step on Peloponnessus, because they simply didn't exist, but the Bulgarian religious authorities, ruled over the land, naming some of them in their Church Language.
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#265

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sun Apr 29, 2012 9:08 am

Journal of a tour in Greece and the Ionian Islands, William Mure:
The Albanians, however, with the Christian insurgents throughout all parts of the Turkish empire, as Greeks in the mass, in contradistinction to Turks or Franks, have, it would seem, been very generally in the habit of concentrating their historical recollections, in common with the more immediate occupants of the classic land, around the glories of Hellenic antiquity; and perhaps, in a great measure, with equal right. Even adopting the more moderate view of a lately so much controverted point, there cannot be a doubt that a large proportion of the present population of Peloponnesus, Attica, and Boeotia, are of Sclavonic or Albanian origin; and, perhaps, an equal or greater share of ancient Greek blood flows in the veins of the Christian subjects of the Sultan, scattered over the northern provinces of his dominions, than of the inhabitants of Greece Proper.‘ It may, indeed, be considered as one of the most capricious turns of the wheel of fortune, that while the seeds of the revolution were sown and matured in those provinces, and while it is notorious that its final success was in a great measure due to the zeal, perseverance, and devoted valour of the Albanian warriors, yet has this brave and patriotic though barbarous race been left to pine in their native seats, under all the rigours of Turkish despotism, while their neighbours to the south enjoy the whole fruits of the common exertions. The blow, however, which they have helped to inflict on the Ottoman power, will ultimately, it is to be hoped, have its favourable influence on their own destinies, and insure them, at some future period, a better chance of taking their place among the free and civilized nations of Europe.

* The peasantry of Attica—Boeotia-part of Phocis-and Argolis— with the islands of Salamis, Hydra, Spezia, and Andros—are chiefly or solelyAlbanian. In the rest of Peloponnesus, with trifling exception —1Etolia-Aearnania, and the remaining islands—the population is exclusively Greek.-Gonnou's Hist. Greek Revol. Vol. I. p. 60.
A Greek renegado at once passed from degradation to respectability, from the rank of a slave to that of a master, and, if a man of talent, had a ready path opened up to wealth and power. Yet even individual instances of conversion are comparatively rare among the Greeks, while no example of apostasy in the mass, on -the part of any large province or community, is, I believe, on record. That this spirit is not characteristic of the Byzantine church at large, but proper to the essentially Greek portion of its communicants, seems to be evinced by reference to the very contrary conduct of their neighbours and cousins the Albanians—a race, generally speaking, of far greater pride and independence of character than the natives of Greece proper. Since their subjection to the Turks, whole tribes of that nation, tempted by the privilege and profit it secured them, have embraced the Ottoman faith; and what are now called Albanian Turks, forming a large proportion of the population of those provinces, are for the most part the descendants of apostate Christians. That the same pertinacity was inherent in the moral as well as religious element of the Greek character, when once roused to a sense of its dignity, seems also warranted by the fact, which I believe cannot be disputed, that although individual instances of treachery were of frequent occurrence, the whole eight years of the late war furnish not one example of desertion in the mass from the national cause, or formal submission to the enemy, on the part of any district or large body of men, amid the abundance of temptation to such conduct to which they were constantly exposed. Apart, therefore, from mere classical association, the events of this war, from the very nature of the contest, afl'ord-matter of rare and deep interest to the contemplation of the philosophic mind. (p. 151)
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#266

Post by ALBPelasgian » Sun Apr 29, 2012 9:45 am

The population of the Peloponnesus, or Morea, was a mixture of Franks, Albanians, and Greeks, the last of whom, however, had received an infusion of Slavonian blood. The Franks were descended from the settlers at the time of the Latin Empire, and were the holders of small fiefs. The Albanians, a hardy peasantry, were chiefly immigrant agricultural labourers, retaining their native customs, and mixing but little with the Greeks. A poor and nomad race, supported chiefly by the flocks which they pastured on the mountains, their numbers and their warlike habits nevertheless rendered them the most formidable part of the population, and it was among them that a revolt was first organised against the Despots, conducted by one of their chiefs called Peter the Lame. Peter, however, proving incompetent to the enterprise, the Albanians offered their cause and their arms to the Archont Manuel Cantacuzene, a descendant of the illustrious family of that name, Lord of the Highlands of Maina.

^The history of modern Europe: from the fall of Constantinople, in ..., Volume 1, Thomas Henry Dyer
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#267

Post by ALBPelasgian » Mon Apr 30, 2012 9:19 am

“It has sometimes been argued that the people living in Greece today are not descended from the Greeks of ancent times. A country dominated by Romans, Franks, and Turks in turn, invaded by Slavs and Albanians, Goths and Vandals, the perpetual battleground of Europeans and Asiatics, a country buried for centuries beneath the dead weight of conquest (...)Nobody except a fanatical nationalist would, I imagine, deny that the Greeks of today are a mixed race”.

^Remember Greece, Dilys Powell, Hodder and Stoughton, 1941, p. 178
“So, as there are in the modern Greeks undoubted Albanian and Roumanian elements, there is no reason to deny that there is probably a Slavonic element also”.

^ The Saturday review of politics, literature, science and art , Volume 42, John W. Parker and Son, 1876, p. 593
The modern Greeks are a composite people, being a mixture of the Hellenic tribes with Asiatic Slavs, Avares, and Albanians. The actual population is, therefore, a very mixed one, and it is difficult to say in what proportions these Hellenic, Slav, and Albanian elements have combined.

^ Military morale of nations and races, Charles Young, Franklin Hudson Pub. Co., 1912, p. 206
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#268

Post by ALBPelasgian » Tue May 01, 2012 9:30 am

Kur Athina fliste shqip
Speakers of Albanian, a language that originated anciently in Epiros and was not written in Biddle’s time, had spread over large parts of Greece. Even rural Attica was thoroughly Albanian. The Albanians had originally been all Orthodox Christians; but many of them became Moslems, if notoriously lax Moslems, to profit from the privileges accorded the conquering religion.

^Nicholas Biddle in Greece: The Journals and Letters Of 1806, Nicholas Biddle, Richard A. McNea, 1993, p. 21
Some believe these people to represent those perplexing Pelasgi who inhabited Greece before the Hellenic occupation of it. If this be correct, it is a singular caprice of Fate which has planted their pauper dwellings, inhabited by a hard-featured, light-haired race, more like Scotch Highlanders than Greeks, on that very slope below the Acropolis which the ancient Athenians from tradition denominated the * Pelasgicon.' * Even in the streets of Athens,' says Mr. Finlay, * though it has been for more than a quarter of a century the capital of a Greek kingdom, the Albanian language is still heard among the children playing in the streets, ' near the temple of Theseus and the arch of Hadrian.'

^Lord Francis Jeffrey Jeffrey Sydney Smith. The Edinburgh review: or critical journal, Volume 117. (page 66 of 70)
A district of Athens opposite to this fountain is called Callirhiotis, and is inhabited by Albanian settlers. Hence at Athens an Albanian and a Callirhiote are sometimes used as synonymous terms.

^Travels in Greece and Albania: Volume 1, Thomas Smart Hughes – 1830, p. 297
The village of Spata, which is exclusively inhabited by Albanians, lies about nine miles to the east of Athens, on the further side of Mount Hymettus, on the road to Marathon.

Mycenae: A Narrative of Researches and Discoveries at Mycenae, Heinrich Schliemann, W. E. Gladstone, William Ewart Gladstone – 2010, p.Xli
"The Albanians appeared first in Greece during the fourteenth century. They are found penetrating into almost every province of the Greek continent, sometimes occupying whole districts, sometimes mingling with the Greek population of the towns, as in Argos and Athens. At the present day, not to mention those districts where the Albanians are mixed up with the Greek population, Attica, Megara, Boeotin, Southern Eobcaa, Argolis, and the Corinthian territory, are possessed altogether by Albanians; and only the population of the towns is either altogether—as in Carysto, Piraeus, Nauplia, and Corinth—or principally Greek—as in Athens, Megara, and Argos. In the islands of Hydra, Spezzia, Poros, and* Salamis, the Albanians possessed the whole territory so exclusively, that, before the Greek revolution, no female, .it is said, could speak a single word of Greek. The maritime power of the Greeks at that time was confined to the first two mentioned islands, and to the island of Psara, which was inhabited by pure Greeks, but lies now beyond the boundary of the Hellenic kingdom. The naval exploits, therefore, which were among the most notable of the revolutionary war, belonged to the Albanian element, and even at the present hour the language of the sailor class is Albanian, not Greek. But more: even in the camps of Tripolizza and Athens, Greek was far from being the only language spoken; for in the land army also the Albanian element asserted its existence. The Botaaris and Tzawelles were Suliotes, and as such Albanians; the Grivas were also Suliotes. and Krisiotis was an Albanian from Euboe.i. Nti:lier wero those who were not Albanians all Greeks; for Kolelis was a Wallachian from Mount Pindus, VVarso was a Montenegrian, Chads! Christo was a Servian; and so on.
"Bo'li races—Greeks and Albanians — even when they oecopied the same districts, remained for several centuries in a state of strict isolation; intermarriages did not take place. But the ice was broken by the Greek revolution; from that time there becomes evident a strong desire on the part of the Albanians living within Greece to identify themselves with the Greeks. The Greek Albanian hears with displeasure when he is called by his natural name, for he looks on it as synonymous with barbarian ; he calls himself a Hellene, and prides himself on the appellation. The attenlive traveller will often remark that in the larger villages of Attica, the women, who formerly could only speak Albanian, will now speak Greek to one another, so soon as they are observed by a stranger; and even in Hydra, Spezzia, and Salamis, I should think there are now few, if any, young girls who do not understand Greek, though the Albanian is still the language of the fireside. Indeed, if matters go on as they are now doing, we may predict with certainty that, after three generations, Albanian will continue to be spoken only in a few of the most remote districts of the country, and in other three generations will have become altogether extinct."*
From this extract the mixed nature of what is destined to be the future Greek people lies exposed to the most careless observer. The process of amalgamation goes on visibly before us; and, as Lyell has so triumphantly done with regard to the solid structure of the earth, so may we, from the living process of social fusion going on to-day, learn what went on in distant centimes. There is much yet to be done in the ethnological anatomy of the Greek population. Professor Forbes, of Edinburgh, lately informed the present writer that in one part of the Island of Naxos lie could distinctly recognise a separate class of people, who, though speaking Greek, presented a type of countenance easily distinguishable from tho genuine Greek feature found in the rest of the island; and this type, from observations made elsewhere, he felt assured, was Sclavonian. In the same way, long after the Albanians of Attica and Argolis shall have forgotten their national language, the discerning traveller will be able to point out two very distinct types of countenance— the one Albanian, and the other Greek.
The extract which we have just made from Dr. Halm's work, presents in a very striking manner, the wonderful influence which is exercised by the Greek language in absorbing
* "Albanetische Studien." Von Dr. Johann Georg von Hahn. Jena. 1864.
^The Westminster review, Volumes 61-62
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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#269

Post by ALBPelasgian » Tue May 08, 2012 11:29 am

The population of modern Attica is composed of three distinct races. The town is the home of the Greek proper. The blood in his veins is mingled, but in default of more direct heirs he claims the heritage of the ancient race. The language that he speaks is more closely allied to classical Greek than Italian is to Latin. A traveller of the seventeenth century reports that the Greek language is being corrupted " not so much by the mixture of other tongues as through a supine recklessness." He adds, however, that " there be yet of the Laconians that speak so good Greek (though not grammatically) that they understand the learned and understand not the vulgar." The Greeklanguage as spoken to-day contains foreign elements, but the body of the language is still there. Thanks to the spread of education and the ardent patriotism of the Press it is rapidly changing, and wherever possible classical roots are introduced. The living, vigorous tongue of the peasant population is being overlaid with this newspaper jargon, and it is strange to see how even a man of no education seems to grasp instinctively the meaning of a classical term when he hears it for the first time. The next generation will hardly be able to understand the language of the Klephtic ballads.

The country districts are populated by industrious Albanians. They seem more Greek than the Greeks themselves. They are probably Illyrians and have lived under conditions similar to those which formed the races who came into Greece from the North. They fought like lions through the War of Independence and on the nation's resurrection their dress was chosen as the national costume. The King's guard is largely recruited from these strapping highlanders, who look very fine in their clean white kilts and jackets embroidered with black for everyday wear, and with gold for full dress. The oldest Albanian settlement in Greece seems to date from the eleventh century, but throughout the ages and especially during the seventeenth century the Greek stock has been invigorated by the influx of these hardy mountaineers. In the fourteenth century Pedro IV of Aragon, one of the Spanish absentee Dukes of Athens, found his districts so much depopulated that he offered the Albanians two years' exemption from taxes if they would settle in Attica. They retain their own language, and the women in the remoter villages often have no Greek. The peaceful invasion is still going on and the mountains rear a race of men who reinforce the feebler stock in the plains.

The third race is the shepherd Vlachs, whose original home was, as their name implies, in Wallachia. Racially they are a most interesting study. It is seldom that one people lives long within the borders of another without losing its individuality. Not so the Vlachs. They are a shepherd people, making no permanent settlements and still retaining a tribal organization. The shepherd- chief is father and lawgiver for the tribe. Intermarriage with Greeks or Albanians is forbidden. In winter they bring their flocks to the low ground. The foot of Hymettus is one of their favourite haunts. In summer their settlements are seen high up among the hills. Like Swiss and Norwegians and other pastoral highlanders, their life is regulated by the migration from summer pasturage in the hills to winter pasturage in the plains. They dwell partly in tents, partly in strange dome-shaped huts built of earth or sticks : there are also shelters for the sheep and lambs, and the whole circular enclosure is fenced in with a low wattled barrier. Seen from below it looks like a brown fungus growth on the mountain-side. Seen close at hand brown is still the prevailing tint. In the shade of the nut-brown house a brown mother sits nursing a brown baby, while brown sheep and goats saunter round the pen. The only note of contrast in this general brownness is found in the wrappings of the baby and the white coats of some of the flock — but all are slowly merging into the general harmony. These settlements are often left to the care of the women while the men are away on the hills. They are therefore guarded by fierce dogs, the only real enemies that need be feared in Attica. I shall never forget my reception on visiting a Vlach settlement on the lower slopes of Hymettus. As I crossed the bridge of the stream dividing the village from the road every little hut sent out a dog, and no sooner was my foot on the further shore than the whole pack came down upon me like an army. Fortunately it was by no means a silent army and the tumult brought some Vlach women to their doors. Seeing that I belonged to their own harmless sex, they called the dogs off and made me welcome in their smoky little wigwams. Experience shows that if we leave the settlements at a safe distance it is not likely that the dogs will molest us. As a race the Vlachs are thrifty and generous. Many of the stately public buildings in Athens have been built by patriotic Vlachs who have died rich men and left their fortunes to their country.

The Greeks, the Albanians, the Vlachs, these are the three races that now hold the lands of Attica. It is fruitless to discuss their exact relationship to their predecessors the Ancient Greeks. Each individual unconsciously seems to reveal his origin, from Greek or barbarian, from slave or freeman. On some mountain- side a beautiful woman greets us with a bend of the head so perfect in its measured gravity that we feel at once that we are in the presence of the lineal descendant of some old Greek or Byzantine house. Some peasant-host, sharing our evening meal, shows those instinctive good manners which remind us of a civilization that was old when our forefathers were but naked hunters.

Days in Attica, Ellen Sophia Hodgkin Bosanquet, 1914

Prej te njejtit liber:

Athens is the capital of Greece, but it is also the market town for Attica. This fact is pleasantly empha-
sized by the groups of peasants who each morning converge upon the city from the surrounding country.
Conspicuous in their heavy garments covered with handsome wool embroidery, Albanians may be seen along any of the main roads leading to Athens. Some are in gaily painted carts, slightly resembling those used by peasants in Sicily.
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Qe neser te korrim frutin me emrin Bashkim!

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Re: Why do we call it Greece while it's Albanian land?

#270

Post by ALBPelasgian » Tue May 08, 2012 12:13 pm

Nothing exhibits more effectually the weakness into which Greece had already sunk, than the ease with which Alaric overrun the whole peninsula ; and the Athenians, who could calmly wait till Minerva should confound the barbarians who were approaching the Acropolis, had already made a great progress in corruption and pusillanimity.

^An essay on certain points of resemblance between the ancient and modern Greeks, Frederick Sylvester North Douglas
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